Harv's Norman supercharger thread

Engine discussion.

Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:43 am

Ladies and gents,

As promised, I will restart the Norman thread again. Unfortunately, with all the drama of the various site changes, I cannot get my old thread back, only copy it across (again). Many thanks though to Devon, who took quite some effort to try to get at the old data.

So, just like the change to the last site, I've copied the thread across, without photos, and will start adding to it again (with photos). Apologies for not copying the old pics... I just don't have the patience to go back and forth to photobucket hundreds of times. If you want the identical thread with pictures, try here:
http://www.fbekholden.com/forum/viewtop ... 25&t=18810

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).
Ladies and Gentlemen,

As promised, here is a start to the Norman supercharger thread.

Having finished the grey motor crashbox guide, it's time to start a new project. My intention this time is to write a Guide for Norman superchargers. What worries me a little is that Norman superchargers are very thin on the ground. Whilst I was able to lay my hands on quite a few carbs, gearboxes and heaters to play with and compare, the chances of doing so with a Norman are pretty slim. It also takes quite a bit of time to write a Guide, and the info must seem to "fall into a black hole" in the interim. To address these concerns, I'm going to write the Norman Guide by publishing dribs and drabs on a single forum thread (one near-identical thread each on the FB/EK, EJ/EH, FE/FC and FX/FJ forums). This means that you get the info earlier, and offers an opportunity for people to comment/add info as we go along (instead of me reverse-engineering by pulling apart several examples). Some weeks there will be an update, some weeks not... depends on how busy I get. I'm also hoping that by publishing dribs and drabs that it will encourage people to bring forth some info to help complete the picture. Once the info is complete, I'll pull it all together and pdf it as a Guide.

The Guide that will come from this thread aims to provide some information regarding fitment of Norman superchargers to early Holdens, and primarily FB/EK Holdens. It will contain:
• some of the theory behind sliding vane superchargers,
• historical information on the production and use of Norman superchargers,
• practical information on the identification, disassembly and reassembly of Norman superchargers, and
• guidance on tuning, replacement parts and overhaul techniques.

The Guide does not aim to be a detailed textbook on all topics of supercharging, nor does it present the basics of how supercharging works. For information of this nature, I’d strongly recommend the following books:
• “Supercharge!” by Eldred Norman, 1968
• "Supercharged! Design, Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems" by Corky Bell, 2001
• "Supercharging Performance Handbook" by Jeff Hartmann, 2011 or
• “Turbochargers” by Hugh MacInnes, 1984.

Whilst the Norman supercharger will greatly increase the performance of a Holden grey motor, it will not deliver the neck-snapping, tyre frying, 9-second quarter mile performance that many people associate with supercharged engines. Like most grey motor performance equipment, Norman superchargers can be likened to “going faster… slowly”. I will assume in the discussion below that the reader is interested in historic speed equipment that is period correct (i.e. that the basic equipment could have been purchased in the 50’s-60’s) yet operable (i.e. that some concessions will be made to allow the supercharger to function with modern fuels, registration laws and with materials that are currently available). I will also assume that the reader has been able to get hold of a Norman supercharger, but is missing some or all of the ancillaries (manifold, carburetor, water injection, overhaul parts) required to get it running.

Whilst the Guide will use FB/EK Holdens as an example, much of the information is applicable to other early Holdens. Please bear in mind that the Norman supercharger was not an original fitment to early Holdens, and hence that limited documentation is known to exist. Much of the information below is drawn from internet forums, discussion with enthusiasts and common sense. I will use photos and other information from a wide variety of sources, particularly from the forums – if anyone is offended by my use of the material, feels I have breached copyright or needs recognition, please let me know and I will correct the issue immediately. Equally, I will make opinions and draw conclusions on some of the information I have found and equipment I have owned, and have cross-referenced some material - if anyone believes that I have made an error (or knows a better way to do something), please let me know and I will update the document... after all, the main purpose here is to help other early Holden enthusiasts.

Like all things automotive, installing, operating and maintaining a Norman supercharger comes with a risk. Leaking fuel lines can lead to fires, jammed throttles can lead to out-of-control vehicles and items dropped down a carburetor throat can cause massive engine damage (amongst other hazards). Any advice contained in this document is to be taken at the reader’s risk – qualified mechanics should be consulted where appropriate.

As a start for this post, lets take a quick look at supercharger theory, and specifically where the Norman fits in. “Supercharger” is a collective term for a large variety of equipment, each with the same practical purpose: to jam as much air as practicable into an engine, along with more fuel, to make more power. When the word supercharger is used, the most common image that comes to mind is a polished GM 6/71 Rootes blower sitting on top of a Chev V8, with an injection bug catcher sitting on top. However, superchargers are a lot more diverse, and can be taken to include:
• turbochargers,
• nitrous oxide (often referred to as “chemical supercharging”, and
• tuned inlet runners (“ram air”).
In general, a supercharger can be considered to be a mechanical machine that compresses air (and sometimes fuel) that is driven by the engine. A turbocharger is the same type of device, but driven by exhaust gas pressure.

If we put chemical supercharging aside, superchargers are of two basic types:
a) Positive displacement: in this type the supercharger sucks in a set volume (or packet) of air, and then forces out the same packet of air. This is similar to the way that a piston engine works (valves open, suck in a set volume of air and fuel, close the valves, compress and power, then open the valves to let the gas out). These types of supercharger have a displacement, or volume or air that is sucked in for every revolution of the supercharger drive shaft.
b) Dynamic: in this type of supercharger the amount of air sucked in is dependant on the speed of the drive shaft, with some churn or slippage inside the supercharger casing (i.e. a packet of air might be sucked in, then some of the packet recirculated a bit before being pushed out again). This is similar to the way that a grey motor water pump works. These types of supercharger do not have a displacement, but instead are described by a compressor “map” (a fancy drawing that shows pressure and flow changing with supercharger speed, similar to the pump curves used in heavy industry).
Superchargers are also defined by whether they have an internal compression ratio or not. An internal compression ratio means that the air is compressed inside the supercharger before leaving the machine. Superchargers that do not have an internal compression ratio do not compress the air inside the casing. Rather, they suck air in and push it out, with the compression being done by “mooshing” the air up inside the cylinder head (more on this later). Sometimes the term “blower” is used to distinguish superchargers that do not have an internal compression ratio (as they just “blow” the air through without compressing it). However, this should not be relied on, as “blower” has become synonymous with most types of supercharger (similar to the way that the terms “huffer”, “snail”, “compressor”, “charger” and “turbo” are bandied about).
Examples of both positive displacement and dynamic superchargers are shown in the diagram below. Note that I have also added chemical superchargers (nitrous and nitro) to the chart.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.jpg.html

Note that the Norman supercharger is a positive displacement machine, and that it has an internal compression ratio.

Enough for a first post - happy to hear commetns and input please.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).

Righto, time for the second instalment of the Norman Guide. Having tackled the basic types of supercharger, lets take a look at the basic theory of a vane supercharger.

Sliding vane compressors are positive displacement machines (as are Rootes superchargers), meaning that they draw in a parcel of air, and move that individual parcel through the machine to the outlet. This is different to say a turbocharger or centrifugal compressor, which are not positive displacement (they have a lot more “slip” of the air inside them).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.png.html

Where the sliding vane compressor rotor is mounted eccentrically (like a Norman supercharger), the air moving through the compressor is compressed within the casing. In this case, the compressor is said to have an internal compression ratio. The image below shows an eccentric compressor.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.png.html

Air moves into the inlet port (red area). As the rotor turns (in this case clockwise), air is drawn into the orange area to fill the vacuum caused by the departing vane. As the vanes continue to rotate, the next vane passes the inlet, trapping the air between the two vanes shown either side of the orange area. The rotating vanes then move this parcel of air towards the blue area. Due to the eccentricity between the rotor and housing, the volume of the blue area is smaller than the orange volume, causing the air to be squeezed into a smaller space (compressed). The vanes continue to rotate, allowing the parcel of compressed air to flow out the outlet port (green area).

When the sliding vane compressor rotor is mounted centrally (as per the image below), the air moving through the supercharger is not compressed within the casing (the compressor is said to have no internal compression ratio).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.png.html

This is a common set-up in air tools. Whilst the turning rotor draws in air from the red to the orange to the yellow areas, the volume of the orange and yellow areas is the same. This means that the air is not being squeezed into a smaller space… just pushed along. The air then moves to the green area, exiting through the outlet port. In a supercharger, this air moves into the inlet manifold, and is smooshed up against the engine inlet valves that are shut. This smooshing provides the compression. Superchargers of this type, where the compression happens outside the supercharger, are said to have no internal compression ratio (just like Rootes blowers) - they compress the air in the inlet manifold, not the supercharger.

So how is the sliding vane compressor (like a Norman) different to an eccentric vane type compressor (like a Shorrock)? In an eccentric vane compressor, the vanes are not free to move like a sliding vane machine. Instead, they are fixed (often riveted) onto a central carrier – see image below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.png.html

The vanes in an eccentric vane compressor do not rub on the casing (unlike a sliding vane compressor), but instead have a fine clearance (around 0.004”). The vanes are mounted in an eccentric drum, and are carried in trunnions. As the drum rotates (carrying the vanes around with it), the eccentricity forces the vanes to protrude more or less. The figure below shows the gas passing through an eccentric vane compressor (from red to orange to yellow to blue).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.png.html

Notice that the vane at the bottom is almost “buried” in the drum, whilst the vane at the top protrudes from the drum quite a bit. The fine tolerances and differing internals make the eccentric vane supercharger significantly more complex than the sliding vane supercharger.

Ok, enough for your second instalment. Next time around, I'll tackle supercharger capacity. As a reminder, if anyone has any Norman parts, whole blowers, photos or anecdotes that they want to sell, I am very much interested. I am also interested in having a "loan" of your Norman to help write this Guide if that suits. So far, I have five Normans lined up to compare... this Guide is looking like a winner.

Cheers,
Harv (chief deputy Norman apprentice).

Ladies and gents,

As a prelude to the next installment, I will use this post to show the Norman superchargers which will be discussed, pulled apart, overhauled, reassembled and run during the course of writing this Guide.

Note that I am confident of the “name” of only the Type 65 Norman… and only then because the name is (literally!) cast into the side of the casing. There are a lot of names bandied about (eg Type 70, Type 110) but I am not confident where people have drawn these from... other than Type 70 that I have also seen cast into casings. I have seen the Normans similar to the “Large Normans” shown below labeled as Type 110, but it does not line up to the capacity, nor is it stamped/cast into the casing. I have seen Normans with “75” stamped into them labeled as “Type 75’s”), but again only because of the stamping (in which case my small Norman below would be a “Type 45” as it has 45 stamped into it… yet I have never heard of a Type 45). All up, the names seem a mess for now, so I will use the simple names in red below for clarity. Maybe the forum postings will attract some answers as to how Normans are named in the long run.

The first supercharger I will label as "Harv's small Norman". It has "45" stamped into the casing, and is a cast casing, four vane rotor, cross-ribbed unit:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... a.jpg.html

The second supercharger I will label as "Harv's large Norman". It has a serial number stamped into the casing, is a split extruded casing, three vane rotor, longitudinally ribbed unit:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html

The third supercharger I will label as "Harv's watercooled Norman". It is a cast casing, four vane rotor, longitudinally ribbed unit.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.jpg.html

The fourth supercharger I will label as "Gary's Type 65 Norman". It is a cast casing, four vane rotor, cross-ribbed unit:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

The fifth supercharger I will label as "Gary's large Norman". It has a serial number stamped into the casing, is a split extruded casing, three vane rotor, longitudinally ribbed unit:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 9.jpg.html
(this thing is a monster ... but more on that later ).

Apologies in advance for the crap photos - more to come as I work these things over.
Orright, time for a post with a bit more substance (the pictures were nice, but a bit light and fluffy ). This time around I'll deal with capacity.

The capacity of a sliding vane compressor is determined by how much air the compressor sucks in between two consecutive vanes. In the image below, the compressor rotor has just turned to the point that the inlet port has been sealed off, trapping the air in the space shown in red.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html
This volume of air, measured in cubic inches, is the volume of the air that one vane carries around per revolution. By multiplying by the number of vanes, the compressor capacity per revolution is determined. To measure this capacity on Norman superchargers, the end plate can be removed and the rotor turned by hand to the position shown. By using a pencil and paper, a rubbing of the area shown in red can be taken. The rubbing can then be ruled up with a grid of squares (say ¼”x¼”, where each square = 1/8 inch2), and the squares counted to estimate the area. By multiplying the area by both the length of the rotor and the number of rotors, the compressor capacity per revolution is determined.

As examples, the Norman superchargers in my photos above have the following capacities:
Harv’s small Norman:
area of rubbing (by counting squares) = 2,261mm2
volume per rotor = 2,261mm2 x 150mm rotor depth = 339,150mm3
volume of supercharger = 339,150mm3 x 4 vanes = 1,356,000mm3 = 83ci

Harv’s large Norman:
area of rubbing (by counting squares) = 2,435mm2
volume per rotor = 2,435mm2 x 298mm rotor depth = 725,630mm3
volume of supercharger = 725,630mm3 x 3 vanes = 2,176,890mm3 = 133ci.

Harv’s water cooled Norman:
area of rubbing (by counting squares) = 1,717mm2
volume per rotor = 1,717mm2 x 345mm rotor depth = 592,365mm3
volume of supercharger = 592,365mm3 x 4 vanes = 2,369,460mm3 = 145ci

Gary’s Type 65 Norman:
area of rubbing (by counting squares) = 1,917mm2
volume per rotor = 1,917mm2 x 10” rotor depth = 486,918mm3
volume of supercharger = 486,918mm3 x 4 vanes = 1,947,672mm3 = 118ci

Gary’s large Norman:
area of rubbing (by counting squares) = 3,233mm2
volume per rotor = 3,233mm2 x 347mm rotor depth = 1,121,851mm3
volume of supercharger = 1,121,851mm3 x 3 vanes = 3,365,000mm3 = 205.4ci

Comparing this to some common superchargers:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

It is interesting to compare the Eaton M90 (as fitted to Holden Commodore VS (series II), VT, VX, VY L67 3800cc supercharged V6 engines) to the Norman superchargers… kind of like comparing Holden’s newest and oldest. The Eaton M90 capacity (90ci/rev) is almost the same capacity as my small Norman (83ci/rev), and only half the size of Gary’s large Norman (205ci/rev). However, capacity is also a function of how fast you can turn the supercharger. The Eaton M90 (generation 5) highest efficiency is at 6000rpm, with the flow map going out to 13,500rpm (there appears to be no real redline for the Eaton, but efficiency drops off pretty smartly). http://www.eaton.com/ecm/groups/public/ ... 128485.gif By By comparison, the Norman supercharger as fitted to a grey motor is typically driven at engine speeds of maximum 4500rpm. This means that although the capacities are about the same, you can run a new Commodore supercharger about twice as fast and hence get around double the capacity (i.e. the new Commodore superchargers have about the same realistic capacity as Gary’s large Norman, and about double the capacity of the old grey motor Normans). Similarly, then Toyota SC14 (as fitted to the 1G-GZE engine) ran at 1.25 times crank speed, with a (crank) redline of 7500rpm. This gives a blower redline around 9500rpm, and hence an overall capacity similar to the Eaton M90.
Sadly, I am not able to compare the capacity of the Norman’s to their sister supercharger, the Judson (sorry Al). Despite quite some searching and conversations with some Judson gurus, it appears that no-one has measured the capacities of these superchargers. The closest I can come is the smaller Judson was 5.125” X 4" diameter and was used on engines from 850 to 1300cc, whilst the larger Judson was 9.5 X 4"diameter, and was used on displacements from 1500 to 2500cc. Each used a 3" diameter rotor with 4 vanes.

Cheers,
Harv

Having looked at the capacity (flow) of Norman superchargers in the last post, it's time to think about pressure.

The efficiency of a sliding vane compressor is dependent on whether the machine has an internal compression ratio or not. Where the sliding vane compressor rotor is mounted centrally (like in air tools), we have no internal compression ratio. As an example, assume the centrally-mounted supercharger is delivering 5 psi of boost, as shown below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.png.html
Because the compressor does not compress the air inside the casing, the 0 psi inlet pressure is also seen in the orange and yellow areas of the casing. As the yellow area of the casing is spun around to the green outlet, 0 psi air from the casing meets 5 psi air from the inlet manifold. The manifold initially flows air backwards into the supercharger casing, until the rotating vanes smoosh the air into the inlet manifold and compress it to 5 psi. This backwards and forwards flow reduces the compressor efficiency substantively, the same way that a Rootes compressor behaves. In the case of the Rootes compressor, this is one of the main reasons why Rootes compressor efficiency is low (around 55%) compared to centrifugal compressors (around 70%).

Sliding vane compressors having an internal pressure ratio (where the sliding vane compressor rotor is mounted eccentrically, like Norman superchargers) have a higher efficiency than the example shown above. This is because the compressed air delivered from the casing does not flow backwards and forwards as it exits the exhaust port. However, the efficiency is also dependent on the location of the exhaust port. Ideally, the compressor should deliver the required boost pressure at the outlet (i.e. if we want 5 psi boost, that is exactly what gets spat out of the supercharger). Using our example from above of a compressor delivering 5 psi of boost, but assume an eccentric mounted compressor like the Norman. The image below shows how the pressure increases inside the casing.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.png.html
As the blue area of the casing is spun around to the green outlet, 5 psi air from the casing meets 5 psi air from the inlet manifold, and no energy is lost in backwards and forwards flow.


However, if the discharge port is located closer to the inlet side (as per the diagram below), the compressor may not deliver the same pressure as the required boost pressure.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.png.html
Whilst the gas is squeezed, the space it is being squeeze into (the orange area) is not yet small enough to increase pressure to our 5 psi desired example pressure… in the example we are only getting 3 psi. In this case, there will be some backwards and forwards flow during discharge (when the 3psi orange area opens up to the 5psi green area), and a resultant loss of efficiency.

Similarly, if the compressor discharge port is located further away from the inlet side (as per the diagram below), the gas is squeezed more than is required for boost pressure.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... d.png.html
As the compressor begins to discharge, the gas expands into the inlet manifold. In the example above, the gas is compressed to 7 psi (blue area) before expanding into the (green) 5 psi discharge port. This “over-compressing and expansion” is again inefficient.

The chart below (which I have adapted from Compressors Selection and Sizing by Royce Brown) shows two cases – either the discharge port being too close to the inlet, or too far from the inlet. The red area under the chart represents the energy lost (leading to lower efficiency) in each case.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html
Looking at one parcel of air (between two adjacent vanes) moving through the supercharger, and targeting a boost pressure as shown at 4.:
1. We start with the supercharger sucking in air from the inlet manifold. We have zero pressure (just atmospheric pressure), and the air takes up just the inlet volume between the two adjacent vanes.
2. The rotor spins and we start compressing our parcel of air. Volume decreases and pressure increases.
3. If the compressor discharge port is designed to open at this point, we haven’t squeezed up to the pressure at 4. yet. Our air flows backwards and forwards during discharge, and we lose the energy shown in the lower red triangle.
4. If we keep squeezing (rotating), and our discharge port is positioned so the air is released at this pressure, then we are optimized. Nice smooth flow from the supercharger into the cylinder head.
5. If we still keep squeezing (rotating), and our discharge port is positioned at this pressure, then we have overcompressed. Our air will lose pressure once it is released into the cylinder head, and we lose the energy shown by the upper red triangle.

OK, enough for one post. Next post we will see how to measure up an actual Norman supercharger, and then how to work out what the optimal discharge pressure is for that machine.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).
As promised, time to see just what pressure the Normans are designed for

For an existing Norman supercharger, the discharge port is fixed. We can then measure and calculate the compressor internal compression ratio, and can estimate the boost pressure which is optimal for the specific port location. To do this, we need:
a) the inlet air volume, which we determined in the last post by using the pencil rubbing technique. This area is shown in the diagram below red,
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.png.html
b) the inlet air temperature (this is the normal outside air temperature).
c) the discharge air volume. In the image above, the compressor rotor has just turned to the point that the discharge port is just about to be exposed, with the air trapped in the space shown in blue. This volume of air, measured in cubic inches, is the discharge air volume. To measure this capacity on Norman superchargers, the end plate can be removed and the rotor turned by hand to the position shown. By using a pencil and paper, a rubbing of the area shown in red can be taken (just like we did with the inlet volume). The rubbing can then be ruled up with a grid of squares (say ¼”x¼”, where each square = 1/8 inch2), and the squares counted to estimate the area. By multiplying the area by the length of the rotor and by the number of rotors, the compressor discharge air volume is determined.
d) The discharge air temperature. This can be calculated for different boost levels by a convoluted process. I will cover this in a future post.
The pressures we will use for the calculations need to be in absolute pressure terms. This is achieved by taking the boost pressure (the pressure you would read on a gauge screwed into the inlet manifold) and adding 14.7 psi. For example, atmospheric pressure (0 psi boost) is (0 + 14.7 =) 14.7 psiabsolute. Similarly, the temperatures above need to be in absolute temperature terms. This is achieved by taking the normal temperature (the temperature you would read on a temperature gauge screwed into the inlet manifold), and adding 273ºC. For example, 35ºC temperature is (35 + 273 =) 308ºabsolute.

We can then use the equation below to determine the optimum boost pressure for a given Norman supercharger:
(inlet pressure x inlet air volume)/(inlet air temperature x discharge air volume)= (discharge pressure)/(discharge air temperature)

Note that whilst the above process can be used to find the optimum (most efficient) operating pressure for a given sliding vane compressor, it does not preclude the supercharger being run at lower or higher boost… it just means that the compressor will not run as efficiently.
As an example, consider my small Norman. For this supercharger, the inlet and discharge air volumes (calculated by the pencil rubbing technique) are as follows:
a) Inlet air volume = 83 inchs3/revolution, and
b) Discharge air volume = 73 inchs3/revolution.
As an aide, notice that the discharge air volume is less than the inlet air volume - this particular supercharger, like all Normans, has an internal compression ratio (the air/fuel mixture is getting squeeeeeeeezed inside the supercharger).

We can then start calculating:
Inlet pressure = atmospheric pressure = 0 psi boost = (0 + 14.7) = 14.7 psiabsolute.
Inlet air temperature = atmospheric temperature = 35ºC = (35 + 273) = 308ºabsolute
Notice I am assuming a 35ºC day here… we could just of readily chosen a cooler day, but 35ºC is reasonable – a fairly hot day when the engine will be working hard even with a cold air intake. Without a cold air intake, the supercharger air inlet temperature (aka the under-bonnet temperature) can be significantly higher.
(Inlet pressure x inlet air volume)÷(inlet air temperature x discharge air volume) = (14.7x83)÷(308x73) = 0.0543

Discharge air temperature and discharge pressure are linked together, and can be modeled (we will do this in a later post… more on this later). If we assume that the motor is a typically asthmatic Holden grey motor (engine volumetric efficiency (VE) of 80%), that our Norman supercharger volumetric efficiency is 90% and that we still have a 35ºC day, then I can draw the following table:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.jpg.html
The right hand column calculates (discharge pressure/discharge air temperature)… sorry about the crappy label in the table.
Looking at the table above, we are looking for a value in the right hand column that is close to 0.0543. The table shows that this is around 3.7psi, inferring that the small Norman will run optimally at around this pressure (… for the curious, this would increase the factory EK Holden 75BHP by 25% to 94BHP, reducing the quarter mile from 18.7 to 17.3s). In practice, this means:
a) We could run the supercharger at less than 3.7psi boost (for example 3psi in the inlet manifold) using a given pulley size. The supercharger will work, but it will compress the air to 3.7 psi before it lets it out into the 3psi manifold. There will be some “popping” as this over-compressed air expands into the lower pressure inlet manifold, and some loss of efficiency.
b) We could run the supercharger at exactly 3.7psi boost, using a slightly larger smaller pulley (spin the supercharger faster). The air inside the compressor will be at 3.7psi when it lets out into the 3.7psi manifold. This is the most efficient operation.
c) We could run the supercharger at more than 3.7psi boost (for example 5psi in the inlet manifold) by using an even smaller pulley (spin the supercharger even faster). The air inside the compressor will be at 3.7 psi when it gets let out into the 5 psi manifold. There will be some popping as the manifold air backflows into the supercharger, before being pushed out again by the turning rotor and smooshed in the inlet manifold back up to 5psi. Again, some efficiency will be lost.

Repeating the above calculation process (pencil rubbings, calculations using the assumptions above, new table) for the other Normans:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html
Of note, the older Normans (those made by Eldred) are designed for much lower boost pressures than the later Normans (those made by Mike Norman). This aligns well to the common belief that the early grey motor Normans were low rev, low boost, standard engine machines. The larger, newer Normans are designed for much higher boost – probably due to advances in fuel quality, cylinder head flow, water/methanol injection and ignition that delay knocking and allowed them to deliver more power on red (and later) engines.

An interesting feature of the small Norman is that the two end plates have been drilled to allow them to be rotated 180º (some of the later Normans have a locating pin to prevent this). Rotating 180º puts the rotor offset to the other side of the casing, and changes the inlet and discharge air volumes.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.png.html
If end plates are rotated, the inlet air volume decreases from 83 to 24 inchs3/revolution and the discharge air volume decreases from 73 to 21 inchs3/revolution. This makes for a very small supercharger. If we undertake the same efficiency calculations:
(Inlet pressure x inlet air volume)÷(inlet air temperature x discharge air volume) = 0.0545
The table shows that this is around 3.8psi, inferring that the small Norman will run optimally at around this pressure… not much change from the other way the end plates were. However, we now would have a much smaller capacity, and would need to spin the supercharger much faster to feed a grey motor… supercharger speed goes from 4,000rpm to 14,000rpm. Whilst Eldred suggested a “destruction” speed of 19,000rpm for his superchargers (Australian Hot Rod, November 1966), this is an awful fast speed for a fifty year old piece of kit with rudimentary bearing thrust control… not for the faint hearted. The upshot here is that when overhauling the small Norman supercharger care needs to be taken to orient the end casings correctly.

Cheers,
Harv

For this post, I am going to deal with the lineup of the Norman supercharger, and most notably the issue of suck-through versus blow-through.

Superchargers are put together in two basic configurations:
a) Suck-Through: in this configuration the fuel source (normally a carburetor) is located upstream of the supercharger. The supercharger thus “sucks” the air through the carburetor. The carburetor has no idea that the supercharger exists – although the carburetor will need to flow more fuel/air to keep up with the extra engine power, it still operates under normal vacuum conditions just like a non-supercharged (naturally aspirated) engine. The supercharger in this case handles a mixture of fuel and air (i.e. an explosive air/fuel mixture exists all the way from the carburetor to the engine – all the items shown in red below).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.jpg.html

b) Blow-Through: in this configuration the fuel source (a carburetor or fuel injection nozzles) are located downstream of the supercharger. The supercharger thus “blows” air through the carburetor. The carburetor now operates under positive pressure instead of vacuum, often requiring modification to the carburetor (which was designed to operate under engine vacuum). The supercharger in this case handles only air, and the amount of piping and equipment holding an explosive air/fuel mixture (marked in red below) is reduced.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 9.jpg.html

Norman superchargers are normally configured as suck-through. We will now work through why thus is the case.
In very basic terms, we want to feed fuel and air into out engine in vast quantities. The image below shows the Norman supercharger connected up to the cylinder head of our Holden grey motor.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.jpg.html

The first challenge that we face is that the supercharger internals have Bakelite vanes that rub against both the steel casing and the steel rotor slots. The vanes require lubrication to reduce the amount of friction (and hence vane wear). The incoming air does not do a great job of acting as a lubricant. We could add an oil squirter upstream of the supercharger, similar to the aftermarket squirter systems used to feed upper cylinder head lubricant (ValveMaster) when running unleaded fuel, or similar to the oilers used on workshop air tools. The image below shows this type of lineup. This type of squirter system, driven by engine vacuum, is commonly used on Judson sliding vane superchargers (the Marvel Mystery Oiler).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.jpg.html

However, Eldred Norman found that this type of lubrication did not adequately lubricate the surfaces of the vanes in the rotor slots since centrifugal force tends to fling the oil drops against the casing. A better way of adding lubricant is to mix it in with the fuel. This oil/fuel mixture will then be fed much more evenly over the vanes. To do this, oil is added to the fuel tank (more on this later). By putting the carburetor upstream of the supercharger, the supercharger is fed both air and the fuel/oil mixture. The fuel/oil mixture then acts as a lubricant (and a heat sink) for the vanes. This lineup (suck-through) is shown in the image below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

We will now talk through Norman supercharger control – and most notably the absence of Pssssshhht!

Norman superchargers in suck-through configuration do not need a blow-off valve (sometimes called a dump valve, or BOV). We will now work through why this is the case.
When the carburetor throttle plates are closed (for example during gear changes, as per the image below), the inlet air to the Norman supercharger is closed off.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.jpg.html

A slight vacuum will develop between the carburetor and the supercharger, though not a huge one. The supercharger inlet is not fed any air, and hence does not make a huge amount of pressure at the outlet. Boost remains (relatively) stable, and the supercharger does not see a huge load increase.
However, if a blow-through configuration had been utilized (as per the image below, shown with the throttle plate open) then a different phenomena occurs.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.jpg.html

When the throttle plate closes, the supercharger has nowhere to discharge to. The inlet to the supercharger is still open, letting the machine suck in air. Because the Norman supercharger is a positive displacement machine, it will keep sucking in and compressing the air, mooshing it up against the closed throttle plate. The trapped boost pressure thus rises rapidly… giving the engine one hell of a shock once the throttle plate opens again. Worse, the supercharger goes into a high pressure, low flow situation called surge (this can sound like chattering in the machine). Surge causes damage to bearings and shafts.
To prevent surge, a blow-off valve would be required as shown in the image below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html

The blow-off valve is normally connected to the inlet manifold between the throttle plate and engine (I have not show this sensing line in the diagram for simplicity). When the throttle plate closes, our supercharger starts mooshing up boost against the closed plate. However, the inlet manifold between the throttle plate and engine goes into vacuum. The vacuum is sensed by the blow-off valve, which opens and lets out the excess air. In some cases the air is vented to atmosphere, giving the characteristic Pssssshhht! noise of late model turbo cars during gear changes. The loud noise of course is “very, very sexy mate”, and increases the libido. For those with no need for a libido increase, the blow-off valve can be plumbed back into the inlet manifold as shown in the image below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.jpg.html

By venting off the excess air the supercharger can continue to spin and discharge. This prevents surge from happening. Many late-model vehicles run EFI, with the injection occuring after the supercharger (blow-through) and the throttle plate downstream of the supercharger. These vehicles are the ones commonly heard Psssssshhhhhting their way through traffic.

Blow-off valves are flow controllers – they are designed to ensure a minimum flow through the supercharger and prevent surge. Again, because we are running the Norman supercharger in a suck-through lineup a blow-off valve is not required. Note that a blow-off valve should not be confused with overpressure protection (burst panels or relief valves) which are required on Norman superchargers. We will deal with overpressure protection next.

As we have seen above, Norman superchargers are normally run in suck-through configuration, as per the images above. This means that all the equipment downstream of the carburetor contains an explosive air/fuel mixture – the carburetor-to-blower manifold, the Norman casing, any intercooler used and also the blower-to-cylinder head manifold. The large the amount or size of the equipment, the greater amount of fuel/air mixture and hence the greater potential for an explosion. The ANDRA General Regulations refer to this as Banging the Blower – “an explosion inside the supercharger caused by a flame from the combustion process accidentally re-entering the supercharger, where fuel and air are present. Generally caused by a stuck or broken intake valve that normally would be closed during the combustion sequence”. The more extreme the valve timing (more overlap) the more likely it is that the blower will bang, particularly at low rpm.
Banging the blower can lead interconnecting hoses blowing off, manifold gaskets being blown out and stalling of the supercharger (which can snap vanes and bend rotors). In extreme cases the supercharger can be blown clear off the manifold… one of the reasons that blower restraints are used in some classes of racing.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... d.jpg.html

Belt drives are often used in Norman superchargers as they prevent a blower bang from stalling the crankshaft (they tend to slip instead). Given the risk involved, some form of overpressure protection is required downstream of the carburetors (despite Eldred’s view that a standard car engine using boost up to only 5psi does not warrant pressure protection provided the manifold volume is not too great).
One method to provide pressure protection is to utilize a burst panel. Burst panels function by venting the supercharger casing to ambient pressure with a non-reusable rupture disk or panel. Burst panels are mandated for some racing classes (for example for all ANDRA screw-type superchargers, for Australian Nostalgia Fuel Association Altereds, and for ANDRA Sport Compacts). Burst panels are often specified by guidance published by SFI (http://www.sfifoundation.com/). SFI is a non-profit organization established to issue and administer standards for specialty/performance automotive and racing equipment. SFI’s quality assurance specifications are sanctioned by CAMS, ANDRA and Speedway Australia. SFI Spec 23.1 covers Supercharger Pressure Relief Assemblies, and requires a burst pressure of 200-250psi, and an area of at least 10inch2 (12inch2 if multiple panels are used). This is a very large burst panel for a Norman supercharger, and is really intended for the large capacity race engines seen in drag racing (up to 500ci with 16/71 superchargers). Whilst a (smaller) burst panel could be utilized for a Norman supercharger, their operation is not conducive to road or track use (other than short-duration drag races) as a burst panel effectively puts the vehicle off the road. Whilst it’s not a big deal to change a burst panel at the drag strip, it can be a real pain in the Woolworths car park of a Sunday afternoon.
An alternative to fitting a burst panel is to use a relief valve (sometimes referred to as pop-off valves, sneeze valves or sometimes as blow-off valves). The image below shows a relief valve fitted to our Norman supercharged Holden grey motor.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html

Relief valves operate similarly to the brass valve located on the side of residential hot water heaters. A spring holds the valve shut in normal use. As the supercharger manifold pressure increases, the spring is compressed, opening the valve and letting the pressure flow out to atmosphere. Once the pressure is low enough, the valve reseats and the vehicle can continue to operate (this is handy in the Woolworths carpark).

I will come back in a later post and explain some more about a few more of the control issues - bypasses, wastegates and boost controllers (believe it or not some of that lot applies to Normans ). I will also delve deeper into relief valves, both period and new types.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger mechanic).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:46 am

So what about all that other stuff that the Zimm Pirates rant about – Wastegates, Boost Controllers, Intercoolers, Timers and Bypasses? There are a number of pieces of supercharger and turbocharger equipment that are commonly referred to in magazine articles, or seen hanging off the front of late model turbocharged cars. Some do apply to the Norman supercharger, and some don’t.

A wastegate is a valve that diverts (bypasses) exhaust gas away from the turbine wheel in a turbocharger system. Bypassing some of the exhaust gases regulates the turbine speed, which in turn regulates the rotating speed of the compressor. By regulating the compressor speed, the maximum turbocharger boost pressure is controlled. Some wastegates are “integral”, where the bypassed exhaust flow rejoins the rest of the exhaust flow after the turbocharger. Alternatively, a "divorced" wastegate dumps the bypassed exhaust gas directly into the atmosphere. A divorced wastegate outlet pipe is commonly referred to as a “screamer pipe” due to the unmuffled noise they produce. Norman superchargers do not require a wastegate. The supercharger is directly coupled to the crankshaft (via a belt). The speed of the supercharger (and hence the boost pressure) is controlled by engine speed. Maximum boost is determined by the drive pulley sizes, and the ability of the engine to flow air into (and exhaust gas out of) the engine.

A boost controller is a device to control the boost level produced by a turbocharged engine. It does this by changing the air pressure signal sent to the wastegate. Without a boost controller the wastegate is a simple air pressure/piston/opposing spring set up. The boost controller allows the air signal to be varied, and hence the response of the wastegate changed. This lets the wastegate open and shut only when required (and more consistently), reducing turbocharger lag. As a Norman supercharger does not have a wastegate, it usually also does not have a boost controller. Boost controllers are also sometimes made by electronically changing an engines engine management (EFI) software. This type of boost controller is occasionally employed on superchargers. In this case, it is used to make the car behave like it had an underdriven pulley system (low power) whilst putting around town, but also behave like an overdriven pulley system (high power) under load. Given that the Norman supercharger is normally run without complex aftermarket engine management, this kind of boost controller is also not applicable.

Bypass valves are sometimes seen in supercharger systems. At low engine loads the power to drive the supercharger is not always better than the output gained. This parasitic loss can lead to poor fuel economy. The bypass valve open s when throttle loads are low and closes when throttle loads are high. With the bypass valve open there is no pressure being created across the supercharger. This allows the supercharger to not create parasitic drag at low speeds. With the bypass valve closed, all airflow is routed through the supercharger and boost is created. The bypass valve is purely used for economy under low load driving – it is not a boost controller. Bypass valves can be internal (a valve that recirculates air inside the compressor casing) or external (where piping is used to plumb the air around the supercharger). The photograph below the internal (brass) bypass valve inside an Eaton MP90 supercharger inlet.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... b.jpg.html

External bypass valves are used in some Norman superchargers, most notably the 110 Deluxe model. This supercharger had a hydraulic clutch driven by engine oil pressure. The clutch could be operated from a button on the dash, disconnected and connecting the supercharger drive at will. This is a bit different to a modern supercharger, which leaves the supercharging spinning when bypassed. When the Norman supercharger is disconnected, the engine becomes just like any naturally aspirated engine. It is however trying it’s hardest to suck fuel and air past the supercharger vanes… a hard task that would cause a huge loss of efficiency, even with the supercharger slowly freewheeling around under vacuum. To help the engine out, a bypass pipe and flapper valve system was installed to allow air to flow from the carburetor outlet straight to the inlet manifold, as per the image below:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.jpg.html

The photograph below shows the bypass pipe linking the inlet and outlet side of the Norman supercharger:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html
The same SU carburetor is used for both supercharged and bypassed operation. Under bypass mode the carburetor dashpot does not open fully, whilst under supercharged loads it opens more and more. This ability of SU carburettors to have a small venturi at low engine load gives good throttle response, and prevents fuel starvation. If a fixed venturi carburetor was used (for example a set of triple or twin standard grey motor Strombergs), the low engine load could give very little “suck” across the large (fixed) venturis, leading to little fuel flow and leanout.
There are a number of downsides to having a bypass valve installed:
• Norman superchargers do not have internal bypass valves, so an external valve must be used. This takes up extra space in the engine compartment.
• if the bypass valve does not seal very well, it can cause loss of boost pressure under load (the supercharger will recycle on itself).
• most Norman supercharger owners are very unlikely to turn the supercharger off. Whilst the bypass will still open under low load conditions, the better fuel consumption is negated somewhat by the supercharger still being driven.
Practically, if the Norman supercharger is one of the Deluxe models with a bypass then it will probably be used, if only for nostalgia sake. If the supercharger does not have a bypass installed, then it is does not require one.

The compression of air/fuel in the supercharging process does generate heat. Some of the heat comes from the vanes scraping the casing, some from the vanes sliding in the rotor, and some from friction in the bearings. The heat from the vanes can be removed to some extent by water cooling the supercharger (some Norman superchargers have a water jacket around the casing which connects to the normal car radiator system). However, a substantive amount of heat is also generated by the compression process itself. The easiest way to visualize this heat is with a simple bicycle pump. Pump a bike tyre up to a decent pressure, then put your hand on the flexible rubber connecting hose – the heat that you can feel is mostly the heat of compression. Heat is not a good thing in a supercharger. It can lead to poor lubrication, and increased bearing/vane wear. Worse, the heat does two things to the incoming air:
a) It makes the air less dense (thinner). After all that hard work compressing the air, it is a shame that the air gets less dense, negating some of our hard work. The less dense air means less fuel/air mixture can be jammed into the engine, and hence less power than we had hoped for.
b) The increased temperature makes the combustion process hotter, and moves us closer to the fuel igniting before we are ready. This pre-ignition is referred to as knocking (sometimes as “pinging” or “pinking”). Knocking can do a substantive amount of damage to an engine, including blowing out head gaskets, smashing piston ring lands and stressing bearings. To combat knocking we can some things (like retarding the ignition timing, adding water injection or running higher octane fuels), each of which comes at a price… usually less power and/or more cost.
One way to combat this increase in temperature is to intercool the supercharger. Intercoolers are shown in the diagram below:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

The benefits of intercooling are considerable… around 40-60% additional power from a supercharged vehicle. An intercooler may be:
• nothing more than a glorified radiator (referred to as an air-to-air intercooler). This is the shiny aluminium fixture often seen at the front of modern turbo cars after half the bumper bar and grille has been cut away,
• a full heat exchanger with the supercharged air on one side and water on the other (a water-to-air intercooler),
• a spray of cold compressed gas over the front of a glorified radiator,
• a box packed with dry ice with the supercharged air passing through internal tubes (kinda hard to top up the dry ice… this is mainly a drag race approach).
Intercoolers were used on some Norman superchargers. For example the photograph below shows a Type 110 Deluxe supercharger with the (factory) air-to-air intercooler labeled as 6. This intercooler is a cast aluminium casing, with the air/fuel charge passing through. Cooling is achieved by the cooling fins alone.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

There are however some down-sides to intercooling:
• the intercooler and piping have a pressure drop. This reduces boost pressure. We can combat this to some extent though by making the supercharger run a little faster (smaller driven pulley) provided we are not already at the limit of what the supercharger can produce.
• the intercooler takes up additional space under the bonnet.
• water/air intercoolers utilizing the cars coolant system will circulate warm water. When the car is under low load, the air passing through the intercooler may be colder than the engine coolant. In this case the intercooler acts as an “interheater”, reducing charge density instead of increasing it.
• the intercooler increases the volume of the inlet system. As Norman sueprchargers are suck-through line-ups, all the inlet system contains an explosive air/fuel mixture. Increasing the volume (by adding an intercooler) increases the size of the potential explosion. To quote Eldred: “Intercoolers are not really feasible. If they are large enough to be effective they form a too large reservoir for the mixture, and when there is a backfire it is almost of nuclear proportions.”.
Practically, if the Norman supercharger has an intercooler then it will probably be used, if only for nostalgia sake. If the supercharger does not have an intercooler, then one may be installed to chase additional horsepower. For those looking for a period-correct installation, or are concerned over the potential to damage the supercharger installation by explosion, an intercooler is not required.
A turbo timer is an electronic device which keeps the engine running (at idle) for a period of time after you turn the key off. It does this allow low-boost, cool air to cool down the exhaust and intake tracts (remember that the turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas, and can become incredibly hot under load). At the same time the engine oil is able to circulate, preventing the red-hot turbo bearings from cooking the oil to carbon (…or melting). Norman superchargers do not suffer from the same high temperatures as a turbocharger. However, they do increase in heat under load. Whilst a turbo timer is not required, it is god practice to drive the car under low load (or at idle) for a few minutes between high load operation and shut down.

So in short:
• Norman superchargers are normally suck-through line-ups.
• a blow-off valve is a flow control device used to protect superchargers from surge. It is not required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.
• a relief valve is an overpressure control device used to protect against explosion inside a supercharger. It is required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.
• a wastegate is a rotational speed and boost pressure control device. It is not required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.
• a boost controller is a device that changes how a wastegate behaves to optimize boost pressure delivery. It is not required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.
• a bypass valve is a device that improves economy at low supercharger load. They are present in Deluxe Norman superchargers, but otherwise not required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.
• an intercooler is a device used to get more supercharged air into a vehicle and reduce knocking. They are present in some Norman supercharger installations. Whilst they can add additional horsepower they increase the risk of explosion and are not absolutely required.
• a turbo timer is a device that allows a hot turbocharger to cool down properly. It is not required on a Norman supercharged vehicle.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy aprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

One question that commonly comes up is “just how much grunt will I get from a Norman?”. In the next few posts I will take a long look at the performance of Norman superchargers. Some of this will be geeky, engineering modeling of how superchargers work (my apologies in advance for those not inclined), whilst some will be comparing factory and road test results.

Whilst it is possible to install and field test Norman superchargers (the “suck it and see” approach), there are some difficulties in doing so:
• There are not all that many Norman superchargers around, and the few that are available are (rightly) viewed as valuable. Convincing someone to allow you to bolt up their supercharger and then test the boundaries of it’s performance is not likely to be an easy task,
• There are quite a few variables that need examining. It can be a very expensive process sourcing multiple supercharger drive pulleys (for example), let alone the time and cost of either road or dynamometer testing,
• The cost of failure can be expensive. A severely knocking engine under load can very quickly lead to engine failure, and
• It has been a considerable time since the Norman supercharger was built. Over the last half century, supercharging technology has increased in leaps and bounds. The increase in technology also means that our expectations of superchargers has changed. Our mental model of “normal supercharging” now includes 15 psi boost pressures, huge intercoolers and EFI. Whilst some of these expectations are applicable to Norman superchargers, many are not… or at least not when the “traditional approach” to using a Norman is desired.
The modeling process involves estimating some issues (for example how efficient the superchargers are), and then calculating what the likely supercharger performance will be (power output, onset of knocking, impacts on bearing design etc). It is recognized that this process is only an estimate – the information below should not be seen as “hard and fast” rules, but rather as a guide or starting point to what these superchargers are capable of. Where I have made assumptions (for example in volumetric efficiencies) I will highlight the likely range of the value involved.

In order to model the performance of Norman superchargers, we need a starting point. I have drawn the data below from the respective factory Workshop Manuals:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... a.jpg.html

There are lots of tricky numbers in that table, so let’s make it simple by using a number that is more familiar – quarter mile time. To estimate the likely unblown performance of the above vehicles, it is possible to estimate the quarter mile elapsed time (ET) using a formula often referred to as “racer math”. The racer math formula is:
ET = 5.825 x (weight/power)1/3
Where:
• Elapsed time is the time for the vehicle to travel the quarter mile drag strip, and is in seconds,
• Weight is the vehicle weight in pounds, and
• Power is the vehicle brake horsepower.
Applying the formula to the early Holdens above yields the following:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... a.jpg.html

No suprises here – the Holdens get quicker and quicker with each new model, with a big change in performance when the red motor was introduced into the EH Holden.

Now that we have a starting point, the key question at this point is just how much power can be squeezed out of a Norman supercharger. As an example, we can take the following anecdote as noted in Supercharge by Eldred Norman:
“In 1954, driving a supercharged Triumph TR2, I finished 4th in the Australian Grand Prix. On this car I used a “boost’ of 12lbs. The supercharger was a G.M. 271 Roots type unit operating at 1.1 times engine speed and driven by four ‘A’ section V belts. By the end of the race belt-slips had caused a fall in boost to a maximum of 8 lbs. Naturally I had to ‘nurse’ the belts by not using full throttle at this stage. My present Holden is some 50% greater in capacity than was the Triumph. I am using a 10 lb. supercharge from my type 110 vane type supercharger and drive it with only two ‘A’ section belts. Under these conditions the vane type is putting out almost 40% more air/fuel than did the Roots with twice the number of belts. Certainly the car is not being raced which is an enormous difference. But my belts last at least 5000 miles of normal road use. Detractors of the vane type supercharger have usually only seen the wrong unit on the job.”
The Triumph TR2 has an engine capacity of 121ci, inferring Eldred’s Holden had a capacity of 182ci. This could be either of the 179ci or 186ci Holden red motors, allowing for rounding of numbers. If we assume that this was Eldred’s reknowned HR Holden with a 186ci motor, with a weight of 2600lb (1180kg), and a performance of 0-100mph in 14 seconds (as per the cover page of Supercharge), then we can use the estimator at the following site (http://www.torquestats.com/modified/ind ... calculator) to estimate the power as being 232BHP. The increase from the HR Holden’s naturally aspirated 145 BHP is some 60%.
A power increase of around 60% seems a fair boundary for the Norman supercharger. This seems low compared to the ~100% increases that can be achieved with modern intercooled supercharging. However, bear in mind that early Holden motors (and particularly the grey motor) have fairly poor flowing cylinder heads, and a limited ability to absorb additional power without snapping cranks or smashing gearboxes, and that intercooling a Norman is no easy task (more on this later).

I will use 60% in the information below. Applying the “racer math” formula but with some increased horsepower shows the following quarter mile elapsed times are probably achievable with a Norman supercharger:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 7.jpg.html

This shows that our Norman blown grey motor, pumping out an additional 60% more power, should be good for around 16 second quarter miles. Whilst not too great in comparison to modern 10-second quarter mile times, it’s not too bad considering that our 60% blown grey is probably still quite a streetable car with none of the lumpy cam, methanol slurping, high geared misbehaviour. Note the two red circles I have drawn on the graph. These show that our blown 60% grey is still only just as quick as an unblown red – a sad fact of life. This is not to say that you cannot squeeze more grunt out of a Norman supercharged grey... just that the results will be typically around the above.

More on Norman power in the next few posts.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

OK, onto some more "geeky" stuff - modelling the Norman.

I have performed the calculations below in a manner consistent with the guidance in Supercharged! Design, Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems by Corky Bell. In doing so, I have made the following assumptions:
a) I have assumed that the Holden grey motor engine volumetric efficiency (VE) is 80%.
• Holley Carburettors, Manifolds and Fuel Injection by Mike Ulrich indicates that ordinary, low performance engines (this sounds like a typical grey motor!) have a VE of 80% a maximum torque, high performance engines 85% and all-out racing engines 95%.
• Garrett (the turbocharger manufacturer) indicates that volumetric efficiency ranges in the 95%-99% for modern 4-valve heads and 88% - 95% for 2-valve designs (whilst the grey motor has two valves, it is nowhere near contemporary).
• EPI Engineering (http://www.epi-eng.com/index.html) indicates that in general automotive engines rarely exceed 90% VE.
b) I have assumed that the Norman supercharger volumetric efficiency is 90%.
• From The Standard Handbook of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Volume 1 (edited by William Lyons) sliding vane compressor volumetric efficiency ranges from 82% to 90%, with 82% representing higher boost pressures.
• From Compressors: Selection and Sizing by Royce Brown, sliding vane compressor volumetric efficiencies range from 90% at 10psig (a typical Norman supercharger pressure) to 85% at 30 psig (way too high a pressure for a Norman supercharger).
• From The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice by C. F. Taylor, sliding vane compressor volumetric efficiency is typically 85%.
c) I have assumed that the adiabatic efficiency of the Norman supercharger is 60%.
• Supercharge by Eldred Norman indicates that Roots superchargers have an adiabatic efficiency of about 50%, sliding vanes superchargers 70% and centrifugal superchargers 90%. These values seem high in comparison to the numbers below.
• Supercharged! Design Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems by Corky Bell indicates that supercharger adiabatic efficiency is in the range 50-65%.
d) I have assumed that the Norman supercharger drive power efficiency is 90%. Supercharged! Design Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems by Corky Bell which indicates the following for drive power efficiency (and utilises a constant 90% for all calculations):
• 5psi boost: 93%,
• 10psi boost: 90%, and
• 15psi boost: 86%.
e) I have assumed that the Norman supercharger thermal efficiency is 65% (higher than the Roots supercharger due to the sliding vanes internal pressure ratio, but lower than the twin screw/centrifugal supercharger due to the heat generated by the vanes moving against the casing).
• Supercharged! Design Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems by Corky Bell indicates the following efficiencies:
Roots supercharger: 55%,
Twin-screw supercharger: 70%,
Centrifugal supercharger: 75%, and
Typical turbocharger: 75%.
• The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice by C. F. Taylor indicates a mechanical efficiency of 65%.
f) I have assumed that the ambient air temperature is 35ºC (96ºF using the normal temperature scale). This number is converted to the absolute temperature scale for the calculations below by adding 460ºF (i.e. 35ºC = 96 + 460 = 556ºFabsolute).

The calculation process is an iterative (cyclic) one – you make some initial estimates of boost, calculate the resultant supercharger outlet temperature, and then calculate boost. You feed the newly calculated boost back into the start of the cycle again, and keep cycling around until the numbers coming out are constant.
For the example below, I will assume a Holden 138ci grey motor (75BHP from the factory, 7.25:1 compression ratio and 4200rpm redline) with a target of 50% power increase (say 110 BHP) once supercharged. I will model the small Norman (82.79 inch3/revolution).

First iteration – this will allow us to make a first guess of the boost required, and how hot the air will be leaving the compressor.
1. Volumetric efficiencies ratio = (supercharger VE/engine VE) = (90/80) = 1.125 (this number will remain constant throughout the calculations).
2. Pressure ratio = (desired horsepower/existing horsepower) = (110/75) = 1.47 (this number we will keep calculating/updating in the iteration cycles below).
3. Boost = (pressure ratio – 1) x atmospheric pressure = (1.47-1) x 14.7psi = 6.91psi (this number is our first guess of the boost required, and will change as we will keep calculating in the iteration cycles below).
4. Drive power efficiency = -0.7 x boost + 96.667 = -0.7 x 6.91 + 96.667 = 91.8% (this number we will keep calculating/updating in the iteration cycles below).
5. Temperature gain across the supercharger = ((pressure ratio^0.28)-1)xTabsolute/thermal eficiency = ((1.47^0.28)-1)x556/0.65 = 97ºF (this number is our first guess at the temperature rise that the supercharger imparts to the air that it is compressing, and will change as we will keep calculating in the iteration cycles below).

Second iteration – this will let us update our estimate of boost and outlet temperature.
1. Density ratio = supercharger inlet temperature/supercharger outlet temperature = 556/(556+97) = 0.851 (this number we will keep calculating/updating in the iteration cycles below).
2. Pressure ratio = desired horsepower/(existing horsepower x densiy ratio x volumetric efficiencies ratio x drive power efficiency) = 110/(75x0.851x1.125x0.918) = 1.669 (this is our second guess at the pressure ratio).
3. Boost = (pressure ratio – 1) x atmospheric pressure = (1.669-1) x 14.7 = 9.83psi (this is our second guess at the boost pressure required).
4. Drive power efficiency = -0.7 x boost + 96.667 = -0.7 x 9.83 + 96.667 = 90% (this number we will keep calculating/updating in the iteration cycles below).
5. Temperature gain across the supercharger = ((pressure ratio^0.28)-1)xTabsolute/thermal eficiency = ((1.669^0.28)-1)x556/0.65 = 132ºF (this is our second guess at the supercharger temperature increase).

Third iteration – again updating our estimate of boost and outlet temperature.
1. Density ratio = supercharger inlet temperature/supercharger outlet temperature = 556/(556+132) = 0.808
2. Pressure ratio = desired horsepower/(existing horsepower x densiy ratio x volumetric efficiencies ratio x drive power efficiency) = 110/(75x0.808x1.125x0.90) = 1.79
3. Boost = (pressure ratio – 1) x atmospheric pressure = (1.79-1) x 14.7 = 11.6psi (this is our third guess at the boost pressure required).
4. Drive power efficiency = -0.7 x boost + 96.667 = -0.7 x 11.6 + 96.667 = 88.5% (this number we will keep calculating/updating in the iteration cycles below).
5. Temperature gain =((pressure ratio^0.28)-1)xTabsolute/thermal eficiency = ((1.79^0.28)-1)x556/0.65 = 151ºF (this is our third guess at the supercharger temperature increase).

If we keep iterating around and around again (Microsoft Excel is great for this), the numbers in our example finally stabilise as follows:
• Boost = 12.9psi
• Pressure ratio = 1.47
• Temperature gain = 165ºF

I'll run some more numbers and show what this means for our small Norman in the next post.

Cheers,
Harv

So what do we do with this supercharger calculation process? Firstly, it gives us a useful tool for looking at what happens as we wind up the boost on a Norman. Taking our blown grey example above and running a few different power levels through it lets us generate the example chart below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

So what does the chart tell us?
Firstly, along the bottom of the scale is the engine horsepower, starting at the factory 75BHP. As we wind boost up from zero to 13psi, our power output increases up to around 110BHP. From earlier discussion, we know that the early supercharged grey motors were not high boost machines, which is why I stopped the calculations here. If we look for our “typical” 50% or so power increase, we would need to be at the 13psi level. This seems a little high compared to the 5psi or so the old blown greys were running, but is in the right ballpark. So why does the model give 13 and not 5? We need to think a little bit more about this – it is largely temperature related.

The secondly thing we can see from the graph is the supercharger discharge temperature. We can see that the supercharger discharge temperature rises with boost, up from ambient at zero boost to about 125ºC at our 110BHP. This is again directionally correct. Looking at some of the literature:
“Even with low boost pressures, manifold temperatures easily reach the 300 degrees (150ºC) mark, or even higher when driving a supercharged car at sustained high speed on petrol” - Blow for Go! Australian Hot Rod November 1966.
This shows our estimate of output temperature is in the right ballpark. So why does the boost pressure in the model seem so high? One of the big issues is that the model (correctly) assumes we are not running an intercooler – discharge temperature increases dramatically with boost. This is a bit different to a modern supercharged (or turbocharged) vehicle with a thumping great intercooler hanging out of the front bumper. That high supercharger discharge temperature means our nicely compressed air/fuel mix is getting hot and less dense... bit of a shame to lose some of the density we were hoping to achieve by supercharging. Worst still, high supercharger discharge temperatures can lead to knock. The historic grey motor set-ups were often run with water (or water/methanol mixture) injection as a knock-inhibitor. Water does this by reducing the temperature of both the inlet system and combustion chamber. We know from the same article above that the 110 Deluxe Norman supercharger kits were introducing water from 110ºF (43ºC), and keeping temperature within 10ºF (say 43ºC – 49ºC). The use of water to cool things down is not counted for in our above model, which is why boost pressure seems so high.

Modelling water injection and it’s effect on boost temperature can be complex, mainly because water injection does some funky things inside the combustion chamber – there is a combination of:
a) Lower temperature due to the vapourisation of water, and hence higher charge density (more fuel and air gets in),
b) Less fuel and air being introduced because some is replaced by water (which doesn’t burn too well),
c) Changes in combustion chemistry due to the interaction of water molecules with fuel during the chemical burning process, and
d) A “steam turbine” effect as some of the unvapouised water flashes off with increased heat.
Modelling all the above is damn hard – you would need to be a rocket scientist. We can however model just the simple “lower temperature” part. For example, we can model what would happen if we were able to keep the supercharger outlet temperature at say 50ºC (i.e. run a Norman with water injection similar to the 110 Deluxe injection system). To do this, we perform the same calculations as the example above, but when we calculate density ratio:
Density ratio = (supercharger inlet temperature)/(supercharger outlet temperature)
We use 50ºC (122ºF or 582ºFabsolute) instead of the calculated (and much higher) supercharger outlet temperature. Running this process through for our “small Norman blown grey” example above gives the following chart:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html

This graph looks more familiar – our 50% power increase is now in the 7½ psi or so range. The above gives us some confidence that the model is not too bad, bearing in mind that the accuracy is probably only +/- 1psi on boost pressure.
The model could do with some tuning against dyno data, but as we noted above convincing someone to allow you to bolt up their supercharger and then test the boundaries of it’s performance is not likely to be an easy task. One set of data that is available is from the same Australian Hot Rod article noted above. In the article, Eldred notes that a standard 179ci motor generates 69BHP at 3,000rpm and 115BHP at the 4,000rpm redline. The latter value indicates that this is probably the HD Holden 179 (this is backed by the article also referencing a 179 X2 engine, as per the HD Holden). We can assume then that the engine volumetric efficiency has increased a little bit over our asthmatic grey motor... say from 80% to 85%. The article indicates that at 4500rpm, the supercharger is putting at 7psi and the motor is developing 145BHP. If we run these numbers through the model, it predicts that Eldred’s blown 179ci at 145BHP will require 6.7 psi with no water injection, or 5.8psi with a 122ºF water injector. This is pretty close to the numbers noted in the article, given the accuracy of the data.

I know the last few posts have been a bit geeky . In the next few we’ll take a look at how we can use the modelling more usefully – predicting pinging, making choices about water injection and sizing pulleys.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).

One issue that our model is useful for is to look at knocking (pinging. There are a number of different views as to when the onset of pinging occurs.

Weiand (http://www.holley.com/data/Catalogs/Weiand/68.pdf) calculates the supercharged engines effective compression ratio as:

Effective compression ratio = (boost/14.7 + 1) x static compression ratio.

Warning... this is not the only way to calculate effective compression ratio – just the one Weiand has chosen (more on this later when we talk about timing). Weiand has found that for Rootes type superchargers, running 92 octane fuel, with no intercooling and with no ignition retard that pinging will not occur with an effective compression ratio lower than 12:1. 92 octane fuel is a little low given that 98 is freely available in Australia. We this need to temper Weiand’s rule of them a bit.

One way to do this is to use the rule developed by A K Miller (a US salt lake racer and manufacturer of turbocharger kits, see Turbochargers by Hugh MacInnes). Miller’s view indicates that the octane required of an engine increases by one point for every psi of boost (for example a 90 RON naturally aspirated engine requires 98 RON at 8psi boost). This is slightly less conservative than the rule of thumb developed by both Kenne Bell (a US manufacturer of superchargers - http://www.kennebell.net/KBWebsite/FAQ_ ... swers1.htm) and Corky Bell (see Supercharged! Design, Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems), both of whom indicate that 1½ octane points are required to support one psi of boost. If we use the more conservative 1½, then we can bring together the Weiand and Miller/Bell/Bell’s experience to draw the chart below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.jpg.html

The range of compression ratios seen in factory Holden grey motors is 6.5:1 to 7.25:1, whilst for EH-HR Holden red motors is 7.7:1 to 9.2:1. The graph shows that for our grey motor running on 98 RON we should be able to achieve 14 to 16psi of boost without pinging.
Sense checking this information:
• “Typically, a 5- to 8-psi boost range (usually produced with the supplied pulleys in blower kits) will work fine for compression ratios in the 8:1 to mid-9:1 range (operating on 91/92-octane fuel).” - Chevy High Performance Magazine. This advice is in the same ballpark as the above graph, but a little less conservative.
• “For carburetted engines with compression ratios of 9:1 or less and boost levels in the 8-14 psi range, pump gasoline works very well. Compression ratios of 10:1 and higher require lower boost levels, higher octane fuel, intercooling, or some combination of the above. Compression ratios in the 7 or 8:1 range can usually handle 12-20 psi on pump gasoline.” – The Supercharger Store. This advice is again in the same ballpark but less conservative.

Whilst the data above is a good guess, it is pretty rough and based on multiple rules of thumb. To be honest, it is probably a little too rough to be really useful. A different, and perhaps more accurate way to look a knocking is to use our model to rpedct combustion chamber temperature. This can be done using the following formula (from Supercharged! Design, Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems by Corky Bell):

Combustion chamber temperature = (compression ratio)^0.28 x cylinder inlet temperature
Where combustion chamber temperature is in ºF, compression ratio is the static compression ratio of the engine (eg “8” for a 8:1 engine), and cylinder inlet temperature is the temperature of the gases exiting the supercharger (in ºFabsolute). Guidance from Bell indicates that knocking will occur at an approximate combustion chamber temperature of 1075ºF.

As an example, taking one of the data points for our non-water injection “small Norman” blown grey motor above, we see that the 7.25:1 engine at 110BHP would be running 8.8psi boost with a discharge temperature of 102ºC (676 ºFabsolute). Calculating through:

Combustion chamber temperature = 7.25^0.28x676=1177ºF.
This is over the guidance above of 1075ºC, indicating that knocking is likely.
We can use the above formula to draw the graph below to use instead of the “rule of thumb” graph above:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

For our Holden grey motor (6.5:1 to 7.25:1, the graph shows us that we can expect knocking to occur somewhere between 55ºC and 65ºC, and for a red motor between 35ºC and 50ºC. This makes good sense when compared to the control implemented in Eldred’s 110 Deluxe water injector which kept the supercharger discharge temperature between 43º to 49ºC.

So what can we do with the data above? If we take the limit for knocking to be 50ºC supercharger discharge temperature, and use our modelling from above, then we can see that without water injection our supercharged grey motor will perform like the following chart:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

The chart shows that without water injection, our 7.25:1 (typical FB-EJ Holden) grey motor will be limited to about 88BHP at 4½psi boost, whilst an earlier FX-FJ grey motor at 6.5:1 is likely to be limited to around 91BHP at 5½psi. We can sneak a few more BHP out by decompressing the motor to 6:1 (by opening the heads or adding a decompression plate), but in reality we are pretty limited.

In summary, the above modelling has thus delivered us two useful messages:
• a supercharged grey engine can expect knocking to occur somewhere between 55ºC and 65ºC supercharger discharge temperature, with 50ºC a reasonable control limit, and
• water injection is going to be a necessity on our blown grey unless we are happy with only 20% or so power increase.

There are other ways of dealing with knocking (for example fuel and ignition) and I will cover these separately.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).

OK, a little break from the theory (I'll come back to pulley sizing later). I managed to add another Norman to the collection:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

I've now got six on the bench:
Harv's small Norman,
Harv's large Norman,
Harv's water-cooled Norman,
Harv's clutched Norman (this new one),
Gary's Type 56 Norman, abd
Gary's large norman.

This new one has "Norman 12" cast into it, and "75" stamped in. Going by old magazine articles, I suspect it is a 110 Deluxe. Not knowing exactly what each model is named is really starting to bug me - consider this a despearate plea for anyone who has info on the various model names... I'd love to hear from you. The new Norman has a clutch drive, driven by hydraulics. It uses engine oil pressure via a daash switch to turn the blower on and off. It also has a blower bypass that operates when the blower is shut off.

The size of this thing is 149ci, nearly the same as my water-cooled Norman. Interestingly, this thing has almost no internal compression ratio (inlet volume is almost the same as outlet volume), and hence would behave similarly to a Rootes blower.


Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:47 am

Ok, one final post to finish up our work on modelling.

The next task we can use our model for is to work out how specific superchargers will behave on our grey motor. A larger supercharger will not need to spin as fast as a smaller supercharger to achieve the same boost pressure. Also, if we have a given supercharger we can change the crank (or drive) pulley to spin it faster or slower, achieving different boost pressures with the same machine.

The calculation process is as follows. Note that I will continue on using the data from the example above.
1. We start by determining the airflow through the engine without the supercharger:
Naturally aspirated engine airflow = (engine capacity x rpm x 0.5 x volumetric efficiency)/1728
For our example grey motor, the engine capacity is 138ci, our redline speed is 4200rpm and our engine volumetric efficiency is 80%. This gives:
Naturally aspirated engine airflow = (138x4200x0.5x0. /1728 = 134cfm.
2. We can then calculate the (now pressurised) air flow required by the supercharged engine:
Supercharged air flow rate = basic engine flow rate x pressure ratio
If we look at the point where our supercharged grey motor was making 110BHP, boost was 12.9psi and the pressure ratio was 1.47. This gives:
Supercharged air flow rate = 134 x 1.47 = 252cfm.
3. Next we can calculate how fast a given supercharger will need to spin to deliver this flow.
Supercharger speed = (supercharged air flow x 1728)/supercharger capacity
If we assume that we are supercharging with my small Norman (83ci/rev capacity), then:
Supercharger speed = (252 x 1728)/83 = 5260rpm.
This shows that whilst our engine is turning at 4200rpm, our supercharger will need to be turned somewhat faster (overdriven) in order to achieve the boost pressure (and hence power) we are seeking. This seems a little odd, as most Normans are driven at pretty close to engine speed. The reason for this is that the example above has no water injection, and hence the gases exiting the supercharger are hot and not very dense. If we cool them by water injection, then we get results closer to engine speed (see graph and discussion below).
4. To overdrive the supercharger, we can change either the drive (crankshaft) pulley, or the driven (supercharger) pulley size. Making the crank pulley smaller will underdrive (slow) the supercharger, whilst making the supercharger pulley smaller will overdrive (speed up) the supercharger. To determine the relative sizes of the two pulley we need:
Crank pulley ratio = supercharger speed/engine redline
For our example, this gives:
Crank pulley ratio = 5260/4200 = 1.253
This means that we would need to have a crank pulley that is 25% larger in diameter than the supercharger pulley. As an example, if we assume that we have something similar to the factory FE-EJ Holden grey motor harmonic balancer on the end of the crank, our crank pulley diameter is 45/8”. This would require a supercharger pulley of 45/8/1.253 = 3.69” diameter.

Using the above calculation process means that for a given engine and supercharger we can work out how it will behave for a given pulley size. As examples, if we use our example grey motor from above but this time adding water injection to achieve a 50ºC supercharger outlet temperature, we can plot the following chart for different superchargers:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html

From the above, we can see that different superchargers can be used to get the same power output on our grey motor, but will spin at different speeds. For example, at 120BHP output Harv’s small Norman will be spinning at more than twice the speed than if we had of bolted on Gary’s large Norman. From the above, we can see that a given Norman supercharger has:
a) A capacity – it will push out a given amount of air every time the shaft is turned, and
b) A point of maximum efficiency – it runs “happiest” at a given pressure.
c) We can get more boost out of a given supercharger by spinning it faster.
However, a word of caution here. Although a larger supercharger can be used and turned slower (within reason), the inverse is not always true (i.e. you cannot always take a too-small supercharger and spin the crap out of it to get the right boost). This is because at high speeds:
a) the amount of air slipping past the vanes and being churned up inside the supercharger increases,
b) less time is available for the air to flow backwards and forwards when discharging (if we are not at the point of maximum efficiency (or “happiest” pressure),
c) the superchargers ability to suck in and blow out each parcel of air begins to be constrained by the inlet and discharge port geometry.
d) more power is taken up driving the supercharger itself.
In the end, this becomes a case of diminishing returns – we get less and less additional boost despite spinning the supercharger faster and faster. Whilst every application of a Norman will vary, practical guidance (Go for Blow, 2009 Street Machine Hot Rod Annual) indicates that 6-7psi is a typical point of diminishing returns for early Normans.

We can also plot out pulley ratio for each of our example superchargers:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.jpg.html

This shows that for Harv’s small Norman and a pulley ratio of 1:1 we would get about 115BHP.
Finally, for a given supercharger we can see how it will perform for a given range of pulleys. For example, for Harv’s small Norman if we assume we are running a crank pulley similar to the standard FE-EJ Holden (45/8” diameter), then the supercharger would behave as follows:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 7.jpg.html

This shows that for our target 50% power increase to 110BHP we would be looking for a supercharger pulley diameter similar to that on the crank, and would be running at around 8psi (with our water injection holding discharge temperature to 50ºC). These numbers line up pretty well with the anecdotes from old Norman operation.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).

To make up for all that theory, here are some YouTube clips of running Normans. Some have been posted previsouly - this puts them in one spot.

The first two are the Lil Horny Devil slingshot rail:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mLzZfjMamY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWrMQfr8Zr8

The third one is one of the FE/FC forum members... that Norman is big enough to lose an arm in :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0x9rSqMfkKk

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).

Just an aside, whilst I was looking through some of my stash of Norman photos I came across this:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html

This is one of the few later (Mike Norman) Normans that I have seen bolted to a grey... mostly they end up on reds. Remember that the later Normans are very much larger than the early (Eldred norman) ones. What caught my interest was that the Norman has been underdriven with a pulley ratio of around 0.64. This matches up nicely to the modelling we did above - the earlier Normans on a grey need a pulley ratio around 0.7 to 1.1, whilst the later Normans need 0.5 to 0.7.

Cheers,
Harv

Whilst it is possible to run a Norman supercharger on any type of carburetor, there is no doubt that an SU looks correct, and is somewhat forgiving. I am not going to go into the basics of SU operation, nor the overhaul process here, as both are covered in many different references. For anyone wanting a good, easy to follow guide on both operation and overhaul, I would recommend Tuning SU Carburettors by Speedsport Motorbooks.

I Bought it on eBay… Now Just What is it?
The starting point for getting our Norman fed is to identify the type of SU that you either have lying under the bench, are watching on eBay or are staring at on a swapmeet stand. Four different types of SU carburetor were made – the H, HD, HS and HIF, as shown below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html

The size of SU carburetors is made by measuring the diameter of the butterfly (engine) side flange hole. The imperial sizes include 11/8”, 1¼”, 1½”, 1¾”, 17/8” and 2", although not every type (H, HD, HS, HIF) was offered in every size. There were also H models made in 2¼” and 2½”, now obsolete. Special purpose-built carburettors (including the rare-as-rocking-horse-poo 3” Norman SU) were made as large as 3".
To determine the throat size from the model number
• If the final number (after one, two or three letters, beginning with H) has one digit, multiply this number by 1/8”, then add 1". For example, if the model number is HS6, the final number is 6, 6x1/8” = ¾", add 1, total is 1¾".
• If the final number has two digits, it is the throat size in millimeters. For example, if the model number is HIF38, the final number is 38 and the size is 38mm.

Additionally, some carburetors are referred to as “thermo” models. The thermo carburetors have a separate unit attached to the main carburetter. The thermo unit is used on certain installations to provide automatically different degrees of mixture enrichment at starting, idling, light cruising and full throttle. The unit is driven either by a thermostatic switch housed in the cylinder head or a manually operated switch. An example of a thermo model number is “HD6TH”.
Finally, some carburetors are fitted with Automatic Enrichment Devices (AEDs). The AED is different to a thermo unit. The AED is a fully automatic auxiliary carburettor used to proved the necessary fuel/air mixture in excess of that supplied by the standard carburettor whilst the engine is below its normal temperatures. It consists of a small carburetter complete with float-chamber and a throttle in the form of a valve opened or closed by the deflection of a temperature sensitive bi-metallic strip. An example of an AED model number is “HS8AED”.

It is often handy to understand the original vehicle that the carburetor came from. The specification number (for example AUD88F) appears on a metal tag attached to the carburetor by one of the float chamber or suction chamber screws.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html

These are often missing from older carbs, being discarded during overhaul or maintenance. When SU’s are used in multiple carburetor set-ups, the code has a letter referring to it’s position on the vehicle – F, C or R for front/centre/rear, or L or R for left/right hand. Note that in some vehicles (for example Rolls Royce) A was used for right hand and B for left hand. The diagram below shows this convention in relation to the driver’s seating position:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html
The Code stamped into the tag can be used with the table below to identify the original vehicle:

Code Model Vehicle
AUC864F H4 Riley One-Point-Five 1498cc 4-cylinder engine 1957-1964.
AUC864R H4 Riley One-Point-Five 1498cc 4-cylinder engine 1957-1964.
AUC968 HS6 Rover 2000 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUC976 HS2 Austin Mini 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1968.
AUC979 HS2 Wolseley 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1964.
AUC982 HD8 Rover 3 litre Coupe P5 2995cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD1026A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (Sweden, Japan and Australia) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1975.
AUD1026B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (Sweden, Japan and Australia) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1975.
AUD1040A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1975/.
AUD1040B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1975/.
AUD104L HS2 Austin Mini Cooper Mark I and Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1969, Morris Mini Cooper 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1969 and Universal Power Drives Unipower 998cc4-cylinder engine.
AUD104R HS2 Austin Mini Cooper Mark I and Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1969, Morris Mini Cooper 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1969 and Universal Power Drives Unipower 998cc4-cylinder engine.
AUD109F HD6TH Jaguar 3.4 Mark III 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964 and Jaguar 3.8 Mark II 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD109R HD6 Jaguar 3.4 Mark III 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964 and Jaguar 3.8 Mark II 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD111C HD8 Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD111F HD8TH Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD111R HD8 Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD112C HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD112F HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD112R HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD114 HD8 Rover 3 litre P5 2995cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD115 HD8 Rover 3 litre 2995cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD118F HS4 Reliant Sabre &*#@ (Zephyr) 1700cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD118R HS4 Reliant Sabre &*#@ (Zephyr) 1700cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD120 HS2 Austin A35 van 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1970.
AUD124F HD8 Austin Healey 3000 Mark III 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD124R HD8 Austin Healey 3000 Mark III 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD128F HD6 Alvis TD 21 6-cylinder engine1963-1964.
AUD128R HD6TH Alvis TD 21 6-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD129F HD8 MG MGB Competition 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD129R HD8 MG MGB Competition 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD13 HS2 Austin A40 Mark II 1098c 4-cylinder engine 1962-1967, Austin 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1967, Austin 1100 Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1971, Morris Minor 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1970 and Morris 1100 Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD132L HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD132R HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD135F HS4 MG MGB and GT 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD135R HS4 MG MGB and GT 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD136F HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK III 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1966, Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, MG Midget Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD136R HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK III 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1966, Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, MG Midget Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD139L HD8 Daimler V8 Majestic Major and Majestic 4561cc 8-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD139R HD8 Daimler V8 Majestic Major and Majestic 4561cc 8-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD141 HS6 Rover 2000 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD144C HD8 Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD144F HD8TH Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD144R HD8 Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar Mark X 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD146L HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1970 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1970.
AUD146R HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1970 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1970.
AUD147 HS6 Austin 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1964-1966 and Morris 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD150F HS6 MG MGC 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD150R HS6 MG MGC 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD151L HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 970cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 970cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD151R HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 970cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 970cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD153F HD6TH Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type Mark III 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio (paper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD153R HD6 Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type Mark III 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio (paper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD154F HD6TH Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type Mark III 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio (oil bath cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD154R HD6 Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type Mark III 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio (oil bath cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD155F HD6TH Jaguar 3.8 7:1 compression ratio (Cooper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD155R HD6 Jaguar 3.8 7:1 compression ratio (Cooper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD156C HD8 Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD156F HD8TH Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD156R HD8 Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X automatic and overdrive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD157C HD8 Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD157F HD8TH Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD157R HD8 Jaguar Mark X 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1964, Jaguar Mark X 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964 and Jaguar 420G 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD160L HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD160R HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD161C HS4 Reliant Scimitar inline 2500cc 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD161F HS4 Reliant Scimitar inline 2500cc 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD161R HS4 Reliant Scimitar inline 2500cc 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD168 HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD170 HS4 Austin Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1967 and Morris Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD171L HS6 Austin 1800 ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Morris 1800 ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Wolseley 18/85 Mark II ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD171R HS6 Austin 1800 ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Morris 1800 ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Wolseley 18/85 Mark II ‘S’ 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD177’A’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1965-1968 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1965-1968.
AUD177’B’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1965-1968 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1965-1968.
AUD180L HD6 Daimler V8 Saloon automatic 2548cc 8-cylinder engine 1964-1968 and Daimler V8 Saloon manual 2548cc 8-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD180R HD6 Daimler V8 Saloon automatic 2548cc 8-cylinder engine 1964-1968 and Daimler V8 Saloon manual 2548cc 8-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD181L HD8 Daimler V8 Majestic Major 4561cc 8-cylinder engine 1964-1968.
AUD181R HD8 Daimler V8 Majestic Major 4561cc 8-cylinder engine 1964-1968.
AUD184 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Morris Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD185 HS4 Austin 1100 automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1967 and Morris 1100 automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD186 HS4 Austin 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, MG MG 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967, Morris 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Riley Kestrel 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Wolseley 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD193F HS6 Volvo B18B 1800S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD193R HS6 Volvo B18B 1800S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD200F HS6 Volvo B18D and P122S (oil bath filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD200R HS6 Volvo B18D and P122S (oil bath filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD201 HD6 Land-Rover 2.6 109” wheelbase left hand drive 2600cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD202F HS6 Volvo B18D (silencer filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1966-1967.
AUD202R HS6 Volvo B18D (silencer filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1966-1967.
AUD204F HS6 Volvo B18B 1800S (silencer, paper element) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD204R HS6 Volvo B18B 1800S (silencer, paper element) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD209F HS6 Triumph TR4A 2138cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD209R HS6 Triumph TR4A 2138cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD210 HS2 Innocenti Mini 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD211 HS6 Rover 2000 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1968.
AUD215F HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD215R HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD217F HS6 Austin 3-litre 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD217R HS6 Austin 3-litre 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD223 HS6 Austin 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1966-1967 and Morris 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1966.
AUD226C HD6 Alvis TF21 Series IV 3-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD226F HD6 Alvis TF21 Series IV 3-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD226R HDSTH Alvis TF21 Series IV 3-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD227C HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD227F HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD227R HD8 Jaguar ‘E’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD230F HS6 Volvo B18B 144S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD230R HS6 Volvo B18B 144S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD231F HS6 Volvo B18B 144S (silencer filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD231R HS6 Volvo B18B 144S (silencer filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD232F HS6 Volvo B18D 144 (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD232R HS6 Volvo B18D 144 (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD233L HS6 Rover 3.5 litre V8 P5 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD233R HS6 Rover 3.5 litre V8 P5 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD239F HD8TH Jaguar 420 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD239R HD8 Jaguar 420 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD240F H4 Austin Westminster 110 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967 and Wolseley 6/110 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD240R H4 Austin Westminster 110 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967 and Wolseley 6/110 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD241F HD6TH Jaguar 340 7:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD241R HD6 Jaguar 340 7:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD242F HD6TH Jaguar 340 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD242R HD6 Jaguar 340 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD243F HD6TH Jaguar 3.4 ‘S’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic and manual (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD243R HD6 Jaguar 3.4 ‘S’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic and manual (AC paper cleaner) 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Jaguar 3.8 ‘S’ Type 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio manual and automatic (AC paper cleaner) 3781cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD245F HD8TH Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Jaguar 420 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD245R HD8 Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Jaguar 420 8:1 and 9:1 compression ratio automatic (AC paper cleaner) 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD247 HD6 Land-Rover station wagon 109” wheelbase (LC) 2600cc six-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD250 HS4 Austin Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Morris Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD251 HS4 Austin 1100 Mark II automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Morris 1100 automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD252F HS6 Volvo B18B 144 (U.S.A) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD252R HS6 Volvo B18B 144 (U.S.A) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD254F HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD254R HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD256F HS6 Jaguar 240 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD256R HS6 Jaguar 240 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD257F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1970 and Triumph 1300 TC 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD257R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1970 and Triumph 1300 TC 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD258 HS6 Austin Maxi 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD262 HS4 Innocenti Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD263 HS4 Innocenti 1100 IM3 automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD264F HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD264R HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD265F HS4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD265R HS4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD266F HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD266R HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD267 HS6 Rover 2000 (U.S.A) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD269’A’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1968 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD269’B’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1968 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A) 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD270L HS6AED Rover 3.5 litre V8 P5 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD270R HS6 Rover 3.5 litre V8 P5 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD271 HS4 Austin 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, MG MG 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Morris 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Riley Kestrel automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Vanden Plas Princess automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968 and Wolseley 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD273 HS6 Wolseley 18/85 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD275F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD275R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD277F HS6 Volvo B18B Snow Weasel 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD277R HS6 Volvo B18B Snow Weasel 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1967.
AUD278F HS4 MG MGB and GT 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD278R HS4 MG MGB and GT 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD280 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1970 and Morris 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD281 HS4 Austin America 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and MG Sedan (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD284F HS6 Triumph TR4A (U.S.A) 2138cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD284R HS6 Triumph TR4A (U.S.A) 2138cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD285F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III (U.S.A) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD285R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III (U.S.A) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD287F HS6 MG MGC (U.S.A) 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD287R HS6 MG MGC (U.S.A) 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD288 HS6 Leyland International 1500 (Australia) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD290F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III (U.S.A) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD290R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark III (U.S.A) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD291 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1970, Morris 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and Wolseley 18/85 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD296 HS4 Austin America automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and MG Sedan automatic (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD297F HS6 Jaguar 240 automatic 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD297R HS6 Jaguar 240 automatic 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1967-1968.
AUD298 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1970, Morris Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971, Riley Elf Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969 and Wolseley Hornet Mark III 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD299 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1970 and Morris Mini 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD305F HS6 Volvo B18B 144 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD305R HS6 Volvo B18B 144 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD309F HS6 Jaguar 240 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD309R HS6 Jaguar 240 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD310F HS6 Jaguar 240 automatic 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD310R HS6 Jaguar 240 automatic 2483cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD312L HS6AED Rover 3500S V8 P6 (U.S.A) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD312R HS6 Rover 3500S V8 P6 (U.S.A) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD313L HS6 Rover 3.5 litre V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD313R HS6 Rover 3.5 litre V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD314 HS6 Austin 1800 (Canada) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1972.
AUD315 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II automatic (Canada) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1972.
AUD317 HS4 Austin Mini Clubman 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Leyland International Apache 1300 automatic (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1974 and Morris Mini Clubman 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD318L HS2 MG MG 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969, Riley Kestrel Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969 and Wolseley 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD318R HS2 MG MG 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969, Riley Kestrel Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969 and Wolseley 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD321F HD8TH Daimler Sovereign 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD321R HD8 Daimler Sovereign 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD324L HS2 Innocenti Mini 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD324R HS2 Innocenti Mini 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD325F HS4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD325R HS4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD326F HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD326R HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD327F HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971, Austin Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971 and MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD327R HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971, Austin Sprite MK IV 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971 and MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD328F HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD328R HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
AUD329F HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD329R HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD330F HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD330R HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD331F HS6 Volvo B18B 144 (U.S.A) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and Volvo B20B 144S 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD331R HS6 Volvo B18B 144 (U.S.A) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and Volvo B20B 144S 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD341F HS6 MG MGC 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD341R HS6 MG MGC 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD342F HS6 MG MGC (U.S.A) 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD342R HS6 MG MGC (U.S.A) 2912cc 6-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD344L HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Morris 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Riley Kestrel Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD344R HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Morris 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Riley Kestrel Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD345 HS4 Austin America 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD346 HS4 Austin America automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD350L HS6AED Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD350R HS6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD354 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD355 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Morris 1800 Mark II (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD356 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/ and Morris 1800 Mark II automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD357F HD8TH Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1970-1972, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD357R HD8 Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1970-1972, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1968-1971.
AUD359 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1974 and Morris Mini Mark II 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1975.
AUD360 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Morris Mini automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD363 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971, Austin Mini Clubman 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971, Morris Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1969 and Morris Mini Clubman 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD365L HS2 Innocenti Mini Clubman 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD365R HS2 Innocenti Mini Clubman 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD366 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1969 and Morris Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD367 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970 and Morris Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970.
AUD368 HS2 Austin 1100 Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1971, Austin 1100 Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Austin 1100 Mark III 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974, Austin 7 cwt van 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973, Leyland International 1100 (Spain) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/ and Morris 7cwt van 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD370 HS4 Austin 1100 Mark II 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1971 and Morris 1100 Mark II automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD371 HS4 Austin 1100 Mark III automatic 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD374 HS4 Austin 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970, MG MG 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969 and Morris 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD376 HS4 Austin 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970, and Morris 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD379 HS4 Austin America 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD380 HS4 Austin America automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD381 HS6 Leyland International 1800 Mark II (Australia) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD382 HS6 Leyland International 1800 Mark II automatic (Australia) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD384A HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom V 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD384B HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom V 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1969.
AUD385F HS6 Leyland International 1800 Mark II TC (Australia) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD385L HS6 Leyland International 1500 TC (Australia) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD385R HS6 Leyland International 1500 TC (Australia) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1968 and Leyland International 1800 Mark II TC (Australia) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD387’A’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A and general) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD387’B’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A and general) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD388F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 (U.S.A) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD388R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 (U.S.A) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD389’A’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD389’B’ HD8 Bentley T Series (SY) (U.S.A.) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1969 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1968.
AUD392 HS4 Triumph Toledo 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971 and Triumph 1500 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD393 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1974, Austin Mini Clubman automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1974, Morris Mini Mark II automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1974 and Morris Mini Clubman automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1974.
AUD394 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II automatic 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD397F HS8AED Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973.
AUD397R HS8 Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973.
AUD40 HS2 Austin A60 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1970 and Morris Oxford 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1971.
AUD401 HS6 Rover 2000 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971.
AUD403 HS6 Volvo B20A 142/144 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD404F HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD404R HS2 Austin-Healey Sprite MK IV (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1971 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD405F HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD405R HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD408L HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD408R HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD409F HS6 Austin 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1974, Morris 2200 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and Wolseley Six 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD409R HS6 Austin 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1974, Morris 2200 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and Wolseley Six 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD411F HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A and E.C.E) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1975.
AUD411R HS8 Rover 2000 TC (U.S.A and E.C.E) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1969-1975.
AUD412L HS6AED Rover 3500S P6 (U.S.A) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD412R HS6 Rover 3500S P6 (U.S.A) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1969-1970.
AUD415F HS8AED Daimler Sovereign 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD415R HS8 Daimler Sovereign 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1973 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD418F HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R (service replacement) 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1964-1966.
AUD418R HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R (service replacement) 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1964-1966.
AUD419 HS6 Leyland International 2200 (Australia) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD41F HD4 MG Magnette Mark IV 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1968 and Riley 4/72 Saloon 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1969.
AUD41R HD4 MG Mag MG Magnette Mark IV 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1968 and Riley 4/72 Saloon 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1969.nette Mark IV 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1961-1968.
AUD428 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD431L HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971, Leyland International Apache 1300TC (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/, Leyland International Mini GTS (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971, Morris 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/ and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975.
AUD431R HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971, Leyland International Apache 1300TC (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/, Leyland International Mini GTS (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971, Morris 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971/ and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975.
AUD433F HIF6 Volvo B20D 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD433R HIF6 Volvo B20D 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD434F HIF4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD434R HIF4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD436 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1976.
AUD438L HS4 Austin Maxi BLMC (Special Tuning) conversions settings 1485cc 4-cylinder engines 1969-1971.
AUD438R HS4 Austin Maxi BLMC (Special Tuning) conversions settings 1485cc 4-cylinder engines 1969-1971.
AUD440L HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD440R HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD441F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD441R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD445F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD445R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD446A HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD446B HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD449 HS2 Austin Mini (E.C.E) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974, Leyland International Mini 850 (Spain) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974 and Morris Mini (E.C.E) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD450 HS4 Austin Mini Clubman automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1972/ and Morris Mini Clubman automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD451 HS4 Austin Mini Clubman 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Morris Mini Clubman 1275 GT (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD453 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Morris 1300 Traveller (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD454L HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD454R HS2 Austin 1300 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, MG MG 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD460 HS4 Innocenti Minimatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD462 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD463 HS6 Austin Maxi automatic 1750 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD464F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD464R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD465F HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD465R HS4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD466 HIF6 Volvo B20A 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD467L HS6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD467R HS6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD468 HS6 Austin Maxi 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD469 HS4 Leyland International Apache 1300 (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD472 HS4 Austin 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971 and Morris 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD474A HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Rolls Royce Corniche 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD474B HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Rolls Royce Corniche 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD475 HS6 Rover 2000 (E.C.E) 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD477F HS6 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD477R HS6 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD479 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD480 HS4 Austin 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Morris 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD481 HS4 Leyland International Mini (South Africa) 1097cc 4-cylinder engine 1971.
AUD486 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark III automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974 and Morris 1300 Traveller automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD487 HS4 Leyland International Marina 1500 (Australia) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:48 am

AUD490L HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD490R HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1970-1971.
AUD492F HS4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD492R HS4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD493F HIF4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD493R HIF4 MG MGB Mark II (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD494 HIF6 Austin Marina (U.S.A.) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD495 HIF6 Austin Marina automatic (U.S.A.) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD496L HS2 Austin 1300 GT (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Leyland International Victoria 1300 TC (Spain) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine, MG MG 1300 Mark II (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD496R HS2 Austin 1300 GT (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Leyland International Victoria 1300 TC (Spain) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine, MG MG 1300 Mark II (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972, Vanden Plas Princess 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Wolseley 1300 Mark II 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD498 HS6 Austin Maxi 1500 (E.C.E) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD499F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD499R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD502F HS2 MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD502R HS2 MG Midget Mark III 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD503 HS6 Leyland International Marina 1.7 manual and automatic (South Africa) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972 and Leyland International Marina 1750 (Australia) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD504F HS6 Leyland International Marina 1750 TC (Australia) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD504R HS6 Leyland International Marina 1750 TC (Australia) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD508 HS4 Austin 1100 Mark III (E.C.E) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD509 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975, Austin Mini Clubman (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975, Leyland International Mini 1000 (Spain) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975, Morris Mini (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974 and Morris Mini Clubman (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1975.
AUD511F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD511R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD513 HS4 Innocenti Mini 1001 automatic 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974.
AUD515 HS4 Triumph Toledo (E.C.E) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD516 HS4 Triumph 1500 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD517F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV (E.C.E) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD517R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV (E.C.E) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD519F HS2 Triumph 1500 TC (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD519R HS2 Triumph 1500 TC (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD521L HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD521R HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD522F HIF6 Volvo B20D 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD522R HIF6 Volvo B20D 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD523 HS2 Austin 10cwt van 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD524 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Morris 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD525 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1974 and Morris 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD526A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A and general) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1972 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (common market and Europe) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD526B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (U.S.A and general) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1972 and Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (common market and Europe) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD528 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD530A HD8 Rolls Royce Corniche (home market and Europe) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD530B HD8 Rolls Royce Corniche (home market and Europe) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD532L HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD532R HS2 Innocenti 1100 IM3 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1972.
AUD533F HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1973.
AUD533R HS8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1971-1973.
AUD534L HS2 Innocenti Mini 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972 and Innocenti Regent 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD534R HS2 Innocenti Mini 1300 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972 and Innocenti Regent 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD535 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD536 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD537F HD8TH Daimler Sovereign left-hand drive 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS left-hand drive 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD537R HD8 Daimler Sovereign left-hand drive 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Jaguar 2.8 XJS left-hand drive 2792cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD538F HS8AED Daimler Sovereign left-hand drive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS left-hand drive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD538R HS8 Daimler Sovereign left-hand drive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1971-1972 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS left-hand drive 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD539L HS6 Austin Allegro HL/Sport (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976 and Austin Maxi 1750 HL (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD539R HS6 Austin Allegro HL/Sport (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976 and Austin Maxi 1750 HL (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD54’A’ HD8 Bentley S3 V8 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD54’B’ HD8 Bentley S3 V8 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD541 HS4 Austin 10 cwt van (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972/, Morris Marina 1.3 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976 and Morris 10cwt van (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD542 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972.
AUD543F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD543R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD545F HS6 Triumph Dolomite Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD545R HS6 Triumph Dolomite Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD546F HIF6 Austin 2200 (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975, Morris 2200 (E.C.E) 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975 and Wolseley Six (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD546R HIF6 Austin 2200 (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975, Morris 2200 (E.C.E) 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975 and Wolseley Six (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD547 NSF HIF6 Jaguar ‘E’ Type V12 conversions settings 5343cc 12-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD547 NSR HIF6 Jaguar ‘E’ Type V12 conversions settings 5343cc 12-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD547 OSF HIF6 Jaguar ‘E’ Type V12 conversions settings 5343cc 12-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD547 OSR HIF6 Jaguar ‘E’ Type V12 conversions settings 5343cc 12-cylinder engine 1972/.
AUD548 HS4 Austin Mini (Canada) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD549F HS2 Austin Sprite (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD549R HS2 Austin Sprite (U.S.A.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD54A HD8 Rolls Royce S3 V8 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD54B HD8 Rolls Royce S3 V8 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD550F HIF4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD550R HIF4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD554 HS4 Chrysler Hillman Hunter 1496cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973 and Chrysler Hillman Hunter 1724cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973
AUD555 HS6 Austin Maxi 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD556 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 (E.C.E) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976 and Austin Maxi 1500 (E.C.E) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD557 HS6 Austin Allegro 1750 (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976 and Austin Maxi 1750 (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD558 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD559 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark I and Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973, Leyland International Mini GT (Spain) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974, Leyland International Victoria 1300 (Spain) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and Morris 1300 Traveller 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD55F HS6 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1964-1969.
AUD55R HS6 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1964-1969.
AUD564 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/ and Morris 1800 Mark II (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD565 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973 and Morris 1800 Mark II 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD566 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD567 HS4 Austin Mini Clubman 1275 GT (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976, Austin 1300 Mark III automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976, Austin Allegro 1300 automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976, Morris Mini Clubman 1275 GT (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976 and Morris 1300 Mark III Traveller automatic (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1976.
AUD568 HS6 Austin 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973 and Morris 1800 Mark II automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD572 HS4C Chrysler Hillman Avenger 1300 1295cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974 and Chrysler Hillman Avenger 1600 1600cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD574A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD574B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD575 HIF6 Austin Marina (Canada) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD576 HIF6 Austin Marina automatic (Canada) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD577 HS4 Triumph Toledo 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD578 HS4 Triumph 1500 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD579 HS4 Triumph 150 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD580F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD580R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark IV 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD581F HIF6 Austin 2200 automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975, Morris 2200 automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975 and Wolseley Six automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD581R HIF6 Austin 2200 automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975, Morris 2200 automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1975 and Wolseley Six automatic (E.C.E) 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1972-1975.
AUD582F HS2 Triumph 1500 TC 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD582R HS2 Triumph 1500 TC 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD583 HIF6 Austin Marina (U.S.A.) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD584 HIF6 Austin Marina automatic (U.S.A.) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD585 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973 and Morris 1300 Mark III Traveller 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD587 HS2 Austin Mini van (G.P.O) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974 and Morris Mini van (G.P.O) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD588 HS6 Leyland International Marina 2.6 manual and automatic (South Africa) 2620cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1975 and Leyland International Marina P76 (Australia) 2620cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1975.
AUD589 HS4 Austin 10 cwt van (G.P.O.) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973 and Morris 10cwt van (G.P.O) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1974.
AUD593 HS6 Leyland International Victoria 1300 (Spain) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD594 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974, Austin Allegro 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975 and Morris 1300 Mark III Traveller (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975.
AUD595 HS4 Austin 1300 Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/, Leyland International Apache 1300 (South Africa) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974 and Morris 1300 Mark III Traveller 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD599F HIF6 Volvo B20B left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD599R HIF6 Volvo B20B left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD600F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD600R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1972-1973.
AUD603F HS4 Triumph Dolomite (E.C.E) 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD603R HS4 Triumph Dolomite (E.C.E) 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD604F HS4 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD604R HS4 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD607F HS4 Triumph 2.5 PI Conversion conversions settings 2498cc 6 cylinder engine 1974/ and Triumph 2500 TC 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD607R HS4 Triumph 2.5 PI Conversion conversions settings 2498cc 6 cylinder engine 1974/ and Triumph 2500 TC 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD608 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II manual/automatic (E.C.E) export only 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975, Austin Allegro 1100 (E.C.E) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975 and Morris Mini Mark II manual and automatic (E.C.E) export only 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975.
AUD611 HS4 Austin Mini (E.C.E) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD613L HIF6 MG MGB GT V8 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD613R HIF6 MG MGB GT V8 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD616F HIF4 MG MGB (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD616R HIF4 MG MGB (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD618 HS4 Austin Mini (Canada) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD619 HS6 Austin Allegro 1750 automatic (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976 and Austin Maxi 1750 automatic (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD620 HS6 Leyland International 185, 215, 220, van etc 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD621 HS6 Leyland International 215, 220, 240, 250 LC van etc 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD623L HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 (E.C.E) and 3500S V8 P6 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD623R HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 P6 (E.C.E) and 3500S V8 P6 (E.C.E) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD624F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark V (E.C.E) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD624R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark V (E.C.E) 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD625F HS2 Triumph 1500 TC (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD625R HS2 Triumph 1500 TC (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD627 HS4 Austin 7 cwt van (E.C.E) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/ and Morris 7cwt van (E.C.E) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD628 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 automatic (E.C.E) 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1975 and Vanden Plas Princess 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD630F HIF4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD630R HIF4 MG MGB (U.S.A) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD631 HIF6 Rover 2200 SC 2204cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD632F HIF6 Rover 2200 TC 2204cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD632R HIF6 Rover 2200 TC 2204cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD633L HS4 Innocenti Regent 1500 1498cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD633R HS4 Innocenti Regent 1500 1498cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD634F HS6 Triumph TR7 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD634R HS6 Triumph TR7 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD635 HS6 Austin Princess 1800 automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD646F HS8 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD646R HS8 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD647F HS8AED Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1974, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD647R HS8 Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1974, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973.
AUD648A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD648B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD653F HS8AED Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1976 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD653R HS8 Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1976 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD656A HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD656B HD8 Rolls Royce Phantom VI 6230cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD658 HS6 Leyland International 215, 220, 240, 250 LC automatic van etc 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD660 HS4C Chrysler Hillman Hunter 1500 1496cc 4-cylinder engine 1975 and Chrysler Hillman Hunter 1724 1724cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
AUD661F HS6 Triumph Dolomite Sprint (E.C.E) 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD661R HS6 Triumph Dolomite Sprint (E.C.E) 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD662F HS2 MG Midget Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD662R HS2 MG Midget Mark III (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD663F HS6 Triumph Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
AUD663R HS6 Triumph Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
AUD664 HS4 Austin Mini (Canada) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD664L HIF6 Rover 3500 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
AUD664R HIF6 Rover 3500 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
AUD665F HS4 MG Midget Mark 1500 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Triumph Spitfire 1500 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Triumph Toledo TS 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976 and Triumph 1500 TC 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD665R HS4 MG Midget Mark 1500 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Triumph Spitfire 1500 (E.C.E) 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Triumph Toledo TS 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976 and Triumph 1500 TC 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD666F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 (Canada) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD666R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 (Canada) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD667F HS8AED Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD667R HS8 Daimler Limousine 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD668 HS2 Leyland International Mini salon/van/moke (Australia) 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD669L HIF6 Rover 3500 (Japan) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD669R HIF6 Rover 3500 (Japan) 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1973-1976.
AUD670 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 (E.C.E) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD671A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (Japan) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD671B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow (Japan) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD672 HS4C Chrysler Dodge 1800 1800cc 4-cylinder engine 1973/.
AUD673F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD673R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD674 HS2 &*#@ Escort 1100 and 1300 conversions settings 4-cylinder engines 1968/.
AUD676F HS6 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD676R HS6 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD677F HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic (Canada) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD677R HIF6 Volvo B20B 144 automatic (Canada) 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1973-1974.
AUD678F HS6 Triumph 2500 TC 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
AUD678R HS6 Triumph 2500 TC 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
AUD679 HS4 Austin Mini Mark II manual/automatic (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Austin Mini Clubman manual/automatic (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976, Morris Mini Mark II automatic (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/ and Morris Mini Clubman manual and automatic (E.C.E) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD680F HS6 Triumph Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD680R HS6 Triumph Sprint 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD684 HS6 Austin Princess 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD689 HS6 Chrysler Avenger 1800 (Brazil) 1800cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
AUD690 HS4C Chrysler Avenger 1300 1295cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD692 HS6 Innocenti Mini 120 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD693 HS4 Innocenti Mini 90 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD697F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD697R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD698F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD698R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
AUD699 HIF6 Volvo B20A 144 left hand drive 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD69L HS2 MG 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1968, Riley Kestrel 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966, Vanden Plas Princess 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and Wolseley 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD69R HS2 MG 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1968, Riley Kestrel 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966, Vanden Plas Princess 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1964 and Wolseley 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD700 HS6 Leyland International Marina 1.7 (Australia) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD702A HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD702B HD8 Rolls Royce Silver Shadow/Corniche (U.S.A) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1974/.
AUD704F HS4C Triumph 2000 and Vitesse conversions settings 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1966-1973.
AUD704R HS4C Triumph 2000 and Vitesse conversions settings 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1966-1973.
AUD706 HS4 Austin Mini van (G.P.O) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/ and Morris Mini van (G.P.O) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD707 HS4 Triumph Toledo 1300 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
AUD708F HS8 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD708R HS8 Rolls Royce B61 power unit 4887cc 6-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD710F HS8AED Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD710R HS8 Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
AUD711 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1974.
AUD713 HS4 Austin Mini van (G.U.S) 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1975.
AUD81 HD6 Land-Rover 2.6 109 FWS (forward control) 2600cc 6-cylinder engine 1963-1967.
AUD86 HS2 Austin Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Morris Mini Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1967-1968, Riley Elf Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964 and Wolseley Hornet Mark I and Mark II 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1968.
AUD88C HD8 Aston Martin D85 3.7-litre 6-cylinder 1962-1964 and D86 4-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1967.
AUD88F HD8 Aston Martin D85 3.7-litre 6-cylinder 1962-1964 and D86 4-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1967.
AUD88R HD8 Aston Martin D85 3.7-litre 6-cylinder engine 1962-1964 and D86 4-litre 6-cylinder engine 1965-1967.
AUD92F HD8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1966.
AUD92R HD8 Rover 2000 TC 1975cc 4-cylinder engine 1966.
AUD94F HS6 Volvo B18B P1800 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1965 and Volvo B18D and P122S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD94R HS6 Volvo B18B P1800 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1965 and Volvo B18D and P122S (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD95F HS6 Volvo B18B Snow Weasel (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD95R HS6 Volvo B18B Snow Weasel (pancake filter) 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1965-1966.
AUD976 HS2 Morris Mini 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1968.
AUD97F HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD97R HS8 Vanden Plas Princess 4 litre R 3909cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUD983F HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark I and Mark II 950cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1966.
AUD983R HS2 Triumph Spitfire Mark I and Mark II 950cc 4-cylinder engine 1962-1966.
AUD99L HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1070cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1070cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUD99R HS2 Austin Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1070cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964 and Morris Mini Cooper ‘S’ 1070cc 4-cylinder engine 1963-1964.
AUF157F HSD8TH Jaguar Mark X 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1964.
AUF328R HS2 MG Midget Mark III (U.S.A) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1968-1969.
FZX1001F HIF4 MG MGB (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1001R HIF4 MG MGB (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1005F HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1005R HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1011 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974/.
FZX1012 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1013F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1013R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1014F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1014R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC automatic (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1974-1976.
FZX1016 HS4 Austin Mini (Canada) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1022 HS4 Austin Allegro 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1023 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1027 HS2 Reliant Robin/Kitten 850 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1030 HS6 Austin Princess 1800 (Sweden) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1033 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa 1800 (Cyclopack air cleaner) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1035 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa (Cyclopack air cleaner) 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1041 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa 185/215/220 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1042 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa CV306 215-240 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1043 HS4 Austin Mini 850 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1044 HS4 Austin Mini 1000 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1045 HS4 Austin Mini 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1046 HS4 Austin Mini 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1047 HS4 Austin Mini Clubman 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1049F HIF7AED Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976, Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1049R HIF7 Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976, Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976 and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1051F HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1976.
FZX1051R HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1976.
FZX1053F HIF7AED Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1053R HIF7 Jaguar 3.4 XJS 3442cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1055 HIF6 Volvo B20A 1990cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1056 HIF6 Volvo B21A (Sweden) 2127cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1057 HIF6 Volvo B21A (Australia) 2127cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1059 HIF6 Volvo B27A 2664cc 6-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1060 HS4 Innocenti Mini 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1064 HS4 Austin Mini 850 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1065 HS4 Austin Mini 1000 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1066 HS4 Austin Mini 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1067 HS4 Austin Allegro 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1068 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1070F HS6 Triumph 2500 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1070R HS6 Triumph 2500 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1975.
FZX1071 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1074 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 automatic 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1076 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/ and Austin Maxi 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1077 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1086 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1087 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 automatic (E.C.E) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1093L HS6 Austin Allegro Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/ and Austin Maxi Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1093R HS6 Austin Allegro Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/ and Austin Maxi Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1094 HS4 Austin Mini 1000 (Sweden) 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1095F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1095R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1096F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 automatic 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1096R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 automatic 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1098F HS6 Austin Princess 1800 (Special Tuning) conversions settings 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1098R HS6 Austin Princess 1800 (Special Tuning) conversions settings 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1099 HS6 Leyland International Marina 1.7 manual and automatic (South Africa) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1100 HS6 Leyland International Marina 1750 automatic (South Africa) 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1102 HS6 Leyland International Marina 2.6 automatic (South Africa) 2620cc 6-cylinder engine 1975-1976.
FZX1104A HIF7 Rolls Royce Silver V8 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1104B HIF7 Rolls Royce Silver V8 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1105F HS6 Leyland International Triumph 2.5 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976 and Triumph 2.5 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976.
FZX1105R HS6 Leyland International Triumph 2.5 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976 and Triumph 2.5 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976.
FZX1106 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 (Sweden) 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1116A HD8 Rolls Royce V8 (Australia) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1116B HD8 Rolls Royce V8 (Australia) 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1117F HS6 Leyland International Triumph 2500 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1117R HS6 Leyland International Triumph 2500 (Australia) 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1121R HS6 Austin Maxi Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1130F HS6 Rover 2300 2300cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1130R HS6 Rover 2300 2300cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1131F HS6 Rover 2600 2600cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1131R HS6 Rover 2600 2600cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1141A HD8 Rolls Royce V8 Shadow 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1141B HD8 Rolls Royce V8 Shadow 6750cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1142 HS4 Austin Mini 850 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1146 HS4 Austin Mini 1000 998cc 4-cylinder engine 1975/.
FZX1160 HS4 Austin Mini 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1164 HS4 Austin Mini 1275 GT 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1170 HS4 Austin Allegro 1100 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1172 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1174 HS4 Austin Allegro 1300 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1178 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/ and Austin Maxi 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1180 HS6 Austin Allegro 1500 automatic 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/ and Austin Maxi automatic 1500 1485cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1183L HS6 Austin Allegro 1750 HL/Sport 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1183R HS6 Austin Allegro 1750 HL/Sport 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1187 HS4 Morris Marina 1100 van 1098cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1189 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1191 HS4 Morris Marina 1.3 automatic 1275cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1199 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 SC (E.C.E) 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1201 HS6 Morris Marina 1.8 SC automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1203F HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1203R HS4 Morris Marina 1.8 TC 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1205 HIF6 Volvo B27A 2664cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1207 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1209 HS6 Austin Maxi 1750 automatic 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1211L HS6 Austin Maxi Hiline 1748cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1215 HS6 Austin Princess 1800 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1217 HS6 Austin Princess 1800 automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976.
FZX1219F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1219R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1221F HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1221R HIF6 Austin Princess 2200 2227cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1223 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa 185/215/220 1622cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1225 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa 1800 CV306 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1227 HS6 Leyland International Sherpa 1800 CV306 automatic 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1229F HIF4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1229R HIF4 MG MGB 1798cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1238 HS6 Volvo Snow Weasel 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/ and Volvo Snow Weasel 1788cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1242F HS6 Triumph TR7 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1242R HS6 Triumph TR7 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1250 HS6 Chrysler Avenger 1800 Hiline (Brazil) 1800cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1252F HIF7AED Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/ and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1976\.
FZX1252R HIF7 Daimler Sovereign 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/ and Jaguar 4.2 XJS 4235cc 6-cylinder engine 1976\.
FZX1257F HS6 Triumph Sprint and TR7 (E.C.E) 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1257R HS6 Triumph Sprint and TR7 (E.C.E) 1998cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1258F HS4 Triumph 1500 Dolomite 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1258R HS4 Triumph 1500 Dolomite 1493cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1259 HIF6 Volvo B21A 2127cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1263F HS6 Triumph 2500 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1263R HS6 Triumph 2500 2498cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1264F HS6 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1264R HS6 Triumph 2000 1998cc 6-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1265F HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1265R HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1854cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1267 HIF6 Volvo B21A (Canada) 2127cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1269 HS4 Triumph Dolomite 1300 1296cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1270L HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1270R HIF6 Rover 3500 V8 3528cc 8-cylinder engine 1976/.
FZX1275 HS2 Reliant Robin/Kitten 850 848cc 4-cylinder engine 1976/.

How Many Carbs do I Need – the Atkins Diet for Normans.
There are few things cooler than a big long string of SU carburetors hanging off the side of an engine. Whilst the S.U. carburetor design is somewhat forgiving (owing to it’s variable venture), there are plenty of reasons to get supercharger carburetor sizing correct, for example:
• With an extra supercharger to squeeze in, space is at a premium under the bonnet.
• Overly large carburetors can struggle with mixture control at part throttle operation.
From Supercharge!, Eldred suggests that on pump petrol a 92ci engine would require a single 1¾" S.U., a 122ci engine a 2" S.U., and a 183ci engine two 1¾” S.U.s. For racing or higher boost it would be necessary to double up on these. For a 132ci to 138ci Holden grey motor, this would suggest that a single SU would be suitable, or two 2” SUs for heavy service. The single SU is not an unusual Norman supercharger setup, with the SU being tucked into the back passenger’s side corner of the engine bay.
An alternative view on the number of carburetors needed comes from Tuning SU Carburettors by Speedsport Motorbooks. This reference gives the chart shown below for naturally aspirated engines:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.jpg.html

Note that the chart indicates that racing engines may require one size larger carburetor than shown, that economy engines may be suitable with one size smaller, and that supercharged engines can produce 80% more power from a given carburetor and hence the carburetor can be correspondingly smaller. Taking this into account, the chart can be redrawn as follows for supercharged applications:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html

If we look at our supercharged 138ci Holden grey motor, and aim for a 50% power increase over the factory 75HP, then we are targeting around 110HP. The chart above shows that Eldred’s guidance of a single 2” SU is not too bad, with some spare capacity. So as a rough guide, two 1½” SUs or a single 2” SU are suitable for supercharged grey motors. For those not chasing grunt a single 1¾” or two 1¼” SUs may suffice. Those looking to push the grey to its limits should conside three 1¼” SUs.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman fiddler).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:49 am

It would be sacriledge to talk SUs, and not mention the very, very large 3” SU carbs made specifically for Eldred Norman. To put this into perspective, if your typical Mini is running a pair of HS2s (or a single HS4), and your typical Norman-blown grey motor is running a pair of HS6 or a single HS8, this monster would be a HS16. The carbs are even more rare than the superchargers themselves, and are twin-needle/jet setups. The twin needles are visible in the throat of the carburettor shown below (which I have taken from Supercharge!)... along with a 20c piece for perspective.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html

Note the size of the float bowl on the side of the carburettor... almost the size of a billy can.
The two photos below right show the 3” Norman SU on a grey motor located in one of the FE/FC Holden forum members vehicles.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.jpg.html
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html

The image below shows Keith Rilstone's 2.3L 280-300bhp ex-Eldred Norman Zephyr special. The photo was taken at the Mallala Race Circuit South Australia. The car was previously known as the the Norholfordor - because it was built from Holden, &*#@ and Tempo Matador parts, and then the Zephyr Eclipse (from the Adelaide &*#@ dealer, Eclipse Motors).

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html

Red motor anyone?

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html

Cheers,
Harv (appreciator of monster SUs)

In this post, I will cover some of the preparations required for the casing liner. I know this is jumping around a bit from the last post on SUs, but that’s the price you pay for me doing this as a string of forum posts (if I did it as a Guide, the sequencing is more logical with less jumping around… but would take me longer to get the finished product to you). Al - this post also helps with your concern that I'm doing too much theory and not enough overhauling .

Norman superchargers have an alloy casing with a steel liner. Later Norman superchargers (and potentially also the earlier ones) had the casing liner surface hardened by Tuff-Trided. Tuff-Triding (also known as salt bath ferritic nitrocarburizing) is a steel hardening process. It works by adding extra nitrogen and carbon into the iron. Tuff-Triding improves scuffing, fatigue and corrosion properties by producing a layer of hardened material (iron nitride) of 10-20µm (0.0003-0.0006”) thick, with a surface hardness of 800-1,500HV (Vickers scale – mild steel is typically 230HV, whilst tungsten carbide is 2,500 and diamond is 10,000HV). The metal under this thin, hard layer is also changed by the process.

Over time, the Tuff-Tride surface can be removed (by wear, corrosion or poor machining). To check if the Tuff-Tride treated surface is still present, copper sulphate can be used. If the hard iron nitride surface is still present, the copper sulphate won’t react. If the Tuff-Triding has been removed however the copper sulphate can get at the iron and will react (for the science geeks, the iron will reduce the copper, leading to the copper plating out: Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu). To do the testing:

a) I bought some copper sulphate. This is available as “bluestone” from nurseries – it is a pretty common algaecide used to control weeds in paths and algae in water.
b) I sat the supercharger barrel horizontal, and cleaned the test area with some thinners - there must be no traces of oil on the surface to be tested.
c) I made up a 5 - 10% solution of copper sulphate dissolved in distilled water. This is the blue liquid you can see in the photos sitting in an upturned grey spray paint tin lid.
d) I applied a dab of the solution to the surface being inspected, leaving in place for 30 - 40 seconds.
f) If there is discoloration (i.e. the solution changes from a light blue colour to transparent and the steel surface takes on a copper/rust color) after this time, the Tuff-Tride treatment has been removed. If the solution stays a blue colour, the Tuff-triding is still present.
g) I washed down the steel surface immediately with plenty of water, as copper sulphate is corrosive. I then re-oiled the surface to protect against rust.

When I did the testing, I found that the Tuff-Triding was still present on my small Norman, my large Norman and Gary’s large Norman. However, the Tuff-Triding had been removed from the surface of Gary’s Type 65 Norman. You can see in the photo where the copper from the copper sulphate solution has plated out onto the liner surface (don’t panic, this copper does not stick to the casing, and wipes off easily).

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 7.jpg.html

Later machining of the Type 65 shows that although the Tuff-Trising had been removed from the surface, it still had a thin hard layer underneath (this is the changes in the parent metal that also come with Tuff-Triding). Note that so far I haven’t tested my water cooled Norman or my clutched Norman as I ran out of time – I wanted the casings cleaned and checked before testing and machining.

The reason for the above testing is to work out whether or not to hone the casings. Honing is required to clean up any small surface scratches in the casing, and more importantly to leave behind a cross-hatch pattern. The cross-hatching provides a surface that will retain an oil film, which we need to lubricate the vanes as they whizz around (retaining an oil film is exactly the same reason that engine cylinders are honed). For sliding vane superchargers that are not case-hardened (for example Judson superchargers) honing is undertaken at all overhauls (Sorry Al - your'e gunna hafta hone yours ). However, there is a bit of a trade-off here if the surface is Tuff-Trided, like the Normans. Honing will generally remove 0.003-0.005” of material (… or more if heavy handed). Bearing in mind that the original Tuff-Triding is probably only 0.0003-0.0006” thick (maybe 0.0015” if it is old, old Tuff-Triding), there is a pretty good chance that honing will remove the case hardening. This will reduce the life of the supercharger barrel. It is of course possible to press out the barrel liner, have it case hardened again and refitted… though this is a pretty substantive task with good risk of damage and expensive. It really becomes a balance between good oiling (and hence longer vane life) against reduced casing life. For what it’s worth (and after having had a good long discussion with a very experienced machine shop and a Tuff-Triding shop), I take the following view:
a) If the case hardening is not present, hone the casing.
b) If the case hardening is present, but the casing shows significant corrosion or heavy scratches, hone the casing.
c) If the case hardening is present, but the casing is otherwise OK, do not hone the liner.
Note that an alternative to honing (say to remove very limited corrosion) is to polish internally by either lapping with emery cloth (grade 360 or finer), or blasting with glass beads (size 40-70μm in diameter, with pressure less than 4 bar). Polishing in this manner is supported by the Tuff-Tride process owner ( Reference: TUFFTRIDE®-/QPQ®-PROCESS Technical Information, Dr. Joachim Boßlet / Michael Kreutz, Durferrit GmbH (http://www.durferrit.com).), but can however partly reduce the corrosion resistance of the liner.

Using the above logic, I took the decision to hone my small Norman (case hardening present, but casing showing significant corrosion) and Gary’s Type 65 Norman (case hardening worn off), but did not hone Gary’s large Norman or my large Norman (case hardening present and casings generally in good condition). The honing was completed by Duncan Foster Engineering, one of the few places around that have hones for the large diameter supercharger barrels (many engine reconditioners can only hone smaller engine-cylinder type diameters). The photos attached show the nice cross-hatching obtained.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... c.jpg.html

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger apprentice).

For this post, we will take a look at the rotors that are used in Norman superchargers. Now that we are starting to look at internals, the sketch below may help to better visualize the way that the Normans are put together:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.png.html

The shaft of a sliding vane supercharger supports the rotor, which may be made from steel or from aluminum alloy. Whilst Norman superchargers have solid rotors, some supercharger rotors are made from hollow extruded sections in order to minimize weight. The rotor may be mounted centrally within the casing, or may be mounted eccentrically (Norman superchargers are eccentric, whilst the vanes in many air tools are mounted centrally). The rotor contains a number of slots (two, four, six or more), which may be radial or tangential (Norman superchargers are tangential), whilst air tools for example are often radial).

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.png.html

The slots carry the rotor vanes, which are free to slide in and out of the slots. Centripetal force causes the vanes to be held outwards against the walls of the casing, forming a seal.

A significant change is noticeable between Eldred’s earlier rotors and the later ones produced by Mike Norman. The earlier rotors are steel, drilled through with the steel drive shaft welded in. These rotors are four-vane units as per the left-hand image below. The later model rotors are machined from a light alloy bar before being fitted with a steel driveshaft. These rotors are three-vane units, as per the right-hand image below.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.png.html

Additionally, the later model rotors have Tuff-Trided sheet steel inserts riveted into the vane slots (as per the red lines on the image below) to decrease rotor slot wear. The inserts can be seen riveted into the vane slots in the left hand corner of the photo below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 7.png.html

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html


A typical rotor (this is Gary’s Type 65) is shown below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.png.html

At some stage I'll sketch up the rest of the rotors and post them here (time is not on my side at the moment ).

The rotors have a number of common features:
• Lands at either end of the shaft to support both the drive-end and non-drive end bearings,
• A land at the drive end to support the drive-end seal,
• A keyway milled into the drive-end of the shaft to provide axial locking of the drive pulley, and
• A threaded section at the end of the shaft to mount the pulley retaining nut.
Note that Norman superchargers do not have thrust bearings. Any thrust loading is transferred through to the drive-end and non-drive end bearings. To minimize thrust (and maintain adequate clearance) care needs to be taken in the selection of the gaskets between the main casing and end plates. Whilst no guidance exists for the Normans, typical Judson supercharger practice is to select the gasket thickness such that 0.010” float exists between the rotor and end case at each end.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html

As the rotor spins, the vanes are forced against the casing wall by centripetal force. The eccentric rotor position means that the vanes slide in and out as the rotor spins. When the vanes are travelling into the rotor, they develop some inertia, and want to keep travelling inwards. As the rotor keeps spinning to the point that the vanes should come out again, the vanes will have a tendency to stay in the rotor slot and hence lift off the casing wall slightly. This tends to happen after the discharge port is passed (and before the inlet port is reached) and hence is probably not much of an efficiency loss. However, the lift-off adds to the supercharger nose, and the repeated banging of the vanes is probably not good for their longevity. To combat the vane lift-off, the latter alloy rotors are fitted with vane springs. The springs are fitted into holes (pockets) drilled into each rotor slot. A plastic bush is fitted between the compression spring and the vane prior to the vane being inserted into the rotor. The springs provide an outwards force on the vane, similar to the centripetal force that normally pushed the vanes out.

The spring operation will be periodic – typically the vehicle will run for 30-60 minutes at a time, with rest periods in between when the car is shut down. During rest periods the springs will be at ambient temperature, though during service will increase. The springs will typically cycle at around crankshaft speed – say a maximum of 4500 cycles per minute, though probably on average 2500 cycles per minute. The springs will operate in an environment of a gasoline/air/oil vapour, with some humidity. Whilst no free water is likely, water content may approach saturation. It is a fair assumption that the springs will only be checked when the supercharger is overhauled – if we used Eldred’s guidance of servicing every 20,000 miles, then the springs are likely to complete 65 million cycles before seeing daylight again. All of this adds up to a very harsh operating environment for a spring to operate in – bear in mind that typical commercially available springs (other than specialties like valve springs) are normally only factory fatigue tested to 10,000 cycles. Most commercial springs are also good for only around ¾” of deflection, whilst the Norman springs deflect around 1½”. The original springs have a reputation for failing in service, and are often removed by enthusiasts to prevent failure. If the springs do fail in service, most (if not all) the shards of spring are likely to be held in place by the plastic bushes, largely preventing them from entering the engine. However, there is a good chance of the hardened steel spring shards chewing out the soft alloy rotor pocket. The image above shows an original spring and bush, together with one that had failed in service.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.jpg.html

The original springs have dimensions as shown in the image below, and a stiffness of approximately 3.7lb/inch.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.png.html

For those seeking replacement springs, Century Spring Corporation part number 12063 are very similar… though resist the temptation to use them, as discussion with Century show that the fatigue life is not likely to be suitable due to the spring steel material used (the springs are also a trifle heavy at 5.1lb/inch). Custom springs are likely to be required for long-term use. A suitable supplier for the springs is Boynes Springs (6 Sarich Court Osborne Park, Western Australia 6017 Australia, Telephone: (08) 94465666, Facsimile: (08) 92441465, Email: info@boynessprings.com.au, Internet: http://www.boynessprings.com.au), who can make the required springs. If anyone wants some springs for their Norman, give me a yell (I had a few spare ones made up ).

The bushes noted above have the following dimensions:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.png.html

Note that the bushes could be readily made from either nylon or PTFE (Teflon). Care needs to be taken when using nylon, as some grades of nylon (for example Nylon 6.11) have melting temperatures as low as 190ºC. Whilst the supercharger will not operate that hot (without pinging its head off), the localized friction of the bushes running in their pockets will certainly increase temperature. Because of this, PTFE (with a melting temperature of 327ºC) is a better choice. As a side note, I have a 1' length of teflon bar at home that I need to machine down into the above bushes (some for me and some spares). If there are any machinists out there who would undertake this for me, I'd love to hear from you (my lathe skills are pretty poor ).

The vanes used in Norman superchargers are made from Bakelite, also known as polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride. Bakelite is an early plastic, and is thermosetting (i.e. when you heat it up, it will char rather than melting). Bakelite saw quite some use in the automotive industry, for example in the manufacture of rotor buttons and distributor caps for early Holdens. The Bakelite used in Norman supercharger rotors is sometimes referred to as phenolic sheet or canvas Bakelite. This is made by applying heat and pressure to layers of cotton fabric impregnated with Bakelite resin to make a laminate. Bakelite in this form has good mechanical properties (as per the table below), is strong, rigid, shows negligible creep or cold flow under load whilst still being light (about 20-25% the weight of steel).
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html

Canvas Bakelite is suitable for a continuous operating temperature of around 120ºC (130ºC peak).
Dimensions for some of the different Norman supercharger vanes are given below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html


In the above diagrams, the darker sections represent the main portion of the vanes, whilst the lighter portions represent grooves that are milled into the trailing edge of the vanes. Note that some of the grooves are milled all the way across the face of the vane, whilst others are milled only partially across the face. The grooves are likely to be used to assist the vanes in being able to move in and out of the rotor. The vanes should be a “flop” fit, though may experience some changes in dimensions due to moisture, fuel properties or dirt. If the vanes become a tight fit, the oily environment they operate in may allow them to form a seal with the rotor. In this case, the vanes will draw a vacuum at the vane root as they try to slide out, or will build pressure at the vane root as they slide back in. The slots allow the vane root to equalize pressure, allowing the vanes to slide freely. The slots also allow some flow of air/fuel/oil around the vane, helping lubrication.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... c.jpg.html

Note that some vanes also have one or two notches cut into them. The notches correspond to the vane springs, giving the plastic bushes a location to bear on the vanes. Interestingly, the Type 65 rotor in Gary’s Norman had a notch despite the rotors not having pockets for springs… perhaps an over-enthusiastic vane replacement in the past.

A suitable supplier for the vanes is Bearing Thermal Resources (5 Kerr Court Rowville, Victoria 3178 Australia, Telephone: (03) 97642009, Facsimile: (03) 97641009, Email: sales@btresources.com.au, Internet: http://www.btresources.com.au), who can make the required vanes.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

For this post we will take a look at the bearings and seals used in the Normans.

Norman superchargers typically have two bearings. The drive-end of the machine is fitted with a single row ball bearing, whilst the non-drive end is fitted with a roller bearing. Dimensions of the bearings are given in the table below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.jpg.html

With respect to bearing lubrication, three different types of bearing arrangement are evident. In the first configuration, there is a very small gap between the casing and the rotor. This can be seen in the image below. The small gap will largely prevent the air/fuel/oil mixture (passing through the supercharger) from passing over the bearing. This means that the bearing cannot be effectively lubricated by the oil. If the bearing is of the sealed type, then no lubrication issue exists as the factory grease will provide lubrication. However, if the bearing is an open type then lubrication will be very poor, and will rely heavily on the grease packing installed during overhaul.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.jpg.html

In the second type of configuration, the casing is more open, with a large gap between the casing and rotor. This can be seen in the image below. In this case the air/fuel mixture will have more contact with the bearing, and may provide some lubrication. Note however that the bearing is not oil immersed, and there is no real flow across the bearing face as one end of the bearing is blanked by the seal. The lubrication of the bearing will be very limited, and again grease packing during overhaul is recommended.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.jpg.html

In the third configuration, the seal is observed to be installed inboard of the bearing, as per the image below. In this case the air/fuel/oil mixture provides no lubrication to the bearing. However, I have only seen this undertaken with sealed bearings, were lubrication is not required.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

In choosing a suitable grease, care must be taken to choose an appropriate grade. For overhauling Norman superchargers I would recommend a grease such as Shell Gadus S3 T100. This grease:
a) is suitable for roller and ball bearings (pretty damn important given that is what it is going onto… some greases used for king pin and chassis greasing will not be suitable),
b) is good for 160ºC (a high temperature range is important particularly if no water injection is used),
c) can handle higher bearing speeds,
d) is water tolerant (important if we are using water injection upstream of the supercharger), and
e) has a long service life (important as Norman superchargers are generally not fitted with grease nipples).

Seals are used in the Norman supercharger for two purposes. Firstly (and more obviously), the seals are to close the gap between the rotating shaft and the static casing to keep the boost pressure within the supercharger. In this case a poor seal means loss of boost pressure, and also a leak of (explosive!) air/fuel mixture into the engine bay. The second reason for the use of seals is more subtle. Under low load conditions (low speed), the supercharger and inlet manifold can come under vacuum, just like a normal (naturally aspirated) engine. In these conditions, a poor seal can lead to air ingress and unstable fuel/air mixtures.
The drive-end seal of the Norman superchargers are twin lip seals with a garter spring. Dimensions of the seals are shown in the table below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html

Many of the original Norman seals were of leather and/or felt construction… somewhat hard to find now. A suitable replacement is Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), which has a maximum temperature of 125°C continuous. Whilst Viton (225°C) would be a better chose, it is a lot less commonly available. In addition to NBR’s temperature limits, NBR (like all materials) has a speed limit. Most seal manufacturers rate the speed limit using surface feet per minute (or meters per second). This is a measurement of how many surface feet meters) pass a given point at the seal lip per minute (second) in time. Since this method considers the shaft diameter in addition to speed, it is a better service indicator than RPM alone. A typical seal design in NBR material can operate up to 3,000 fpm (15 m/s) assuming all other operating parameters are reasonable. For Norman supercharger shaft diameters (1-1.4” diameter) this implies a speed limit of around 8500rpm (Timkin suggests this could be a little lower at 6500rpm for their TC seals). This speed limit should not be an issue given that most Norman superchargers will run at speeds similar to that of the crankshaft (~4500rpm maximum).
Most seals that I pulled out of the Norman superchargers are simple TC profile type seals. TC seals are typically rated for 5psi operation. Whilst 5psi is in the typical Norman supercharger range, 10psi is not out of the question. There are better seal profiles available (for example Parker’s LFN, LFE-S and MP seal profiles, as they are suitable up to 60psi). Note however that again availability may be an issue for these seal profiles – I have not yet been able to find a decent seal profile in the sizes required for Norman superchargersother than the simple TC seals. For interest, LFN, LFE-S, MP and TC seal profiles are shown (from left to right) in the image above.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler)

As promised, I want to return back to discussing SU carbs. In this post I am going to deal with a significant issue - try to obtain mixture control with monster carbs.

It is possible, and fairly common, to run a single SU carburettor to feed a Norman supercharger (the 3” Norman SU is pretty rare, but a single 2” is run-of-the-mill). However, large single SU carburettors on supercharged engines can lead to a mixture spread issue. At full throttle, the supercharger is producing boost, squeezing in lots of air and lots of fuel. This requires a fairly rich needle profile. At part throttle however boost is very low (in some cases vacuum exists in the inlet manifold), and the engine behaves more like a naturally aspirated car. This then requires a normally lean needle profile. Whilst the full-throttle mixture can be tuned by finding an appropriate needle, the part throttle mixture may end up being overly rich (almost the same as full-throttle) leading to poor fuel efficiency. Whilst this issue is not too serious in race vehicles that always run full-throttle, it can be annoying in a road vehicle (poor economy and plug fouling). Finding a better needle profile may help solve the issue, though few needles are available for supercharged applications.

One method to get around the mixture spread issue is to use the Additional Weakening Device, which was a fitting originally used in some SU installations (eg the HIF38S, also known as the metric HIF4). I will draw below on some information from both Tuning British Leyland’s A-Series Engine by David Vizard and Tuning SU Carburettors by Speedsport Motorbooks. The images below show the weakening device as installed to original SU float bowls:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.jpg.html

The amount of fuel delivered by an SU main jet is governed, not only by the profile of the needle presented to the airstream, but also by the height of the fuel in the jet. In simple terms, if the fuel height is lower in the jet, it is harder for the carb to “suck” out the fuel, leading to a leaner mixture. The Additional Weakening Device works (leans the mixture) by lowering the fuel level in the jet. It does this by changing the pressure differential between the end of the jet (the carb throat) and the fuel in the float bowl. Normally the fuel in the float bowl is subjected to standard air pressure, as the float bowl is vented as per the image below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html.

The height of fuel in the jet is then determined by the corresponding height of fuel in the float bowl (hydrostatic head, just like a water level gauge used by carpenters). The Additional Weakening Device however applies a partial vacuum to the top of the float bowl, as per the image below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html.

The float still controls the float bowl level at the same height, giving the same hydrostatic head to the jet. However, the vacuum above the float chamber fuel level means that the total pressure seen by the jet is lower, and hence the fuel level in the jet drops down. By controlling how much vacuum is applied to the float bowl, different fuel levels in the jet can be made, and hence different mixtures.
The Additional Weakening Device consists of a drilling in the carburettor throat (labelled 5 in the image below) which is connected by a flexible pipe to the top of the float bowl.

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... a.jpg.html

The drilling in the carburettor throat is made on the upstream side of the throttle butterfly (i.e. it supplies ported vacuum, not manifold vacuum). At the top of the float bowl a venturi (labelled as 1) is used to draw vacuum from the float bowl via a drilling (labelled as 2). The float bowl is sealed, with a vent line provided to let air into the bowl (labelled as 4). As this air is being sucked (through the float bowl) to the carburettor throat, the vent line is normally connected to the air filter to provide clean air. The amount of air that can flow through the vent line is controlled by an air bleed restriction (labelled as 3). The size of the venturi (1) is standard. The air bleed restriction diameter (3) is varied on different vehicles to determine the amount of vacuum applied (and hence the mixture strength). Note that the diameter and length of the flexible vent line (4) connecting the air bleed restriction to the air filter has a substantial effect on mixture strength.

With the throttle in the normal idling position (as shown in the image to the right), the drilling in the carburettor body is located upstream of the throttle butterfly, and is not able to see manifold vacuum:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... d.jpg.html

There is a very slight vacuum, but the effect on the float chamber will be negligible. This means that the Additional Weakening Device has no effect on the fuel mixture at idle.

When the throttle is partly open (as per the image below), the drilling in the carburettor body becomes exposed to manifold vacuum:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.jpg.html

This causes air to be drawn from the float bowl via the venturi. The use of a venturi (instead of a plain orifice) ensures that the air velocity will reach a maximum value which remains constant. The air bleed on top of the float bowl allows air into the float bowl, though the flow is restricted by the air bleed restriction. This gives vacuum in the float bowl, causing the fuel level in the jet to drop and the mixture to run leaner. This arrangement allows the maximum fuel mixturing weakening effect to be produced when the throttle buterfly is closed a small amount from the full open position (when only a slight vacuum is present) and ensures that further closing of the throttle does not increase the weakening effect to the point at which misfiring may occur.

When the throttle is fully open (as per the image below), manifold vacuum decreases to a very small amount:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... e.jpg.html

This small vacuum is able to act on the throttle body drilling, but is not sufficient to cause significant vacuum in the fuel bowl. In this way the Additional Weakening Device is not able to affect the mixture under full throttle operation.
Whilst a fairly simple piece of kit, the Additional Weakening Device consists of the fine air bleed restriction and the venturi. Both of these items have been tuned to a particular needle, jet and vacuum combination, and are not adjustable. If a factory Additional Weakening Device is used on a Norman supercharged vehicle, it may not behave as intended – there is a risk of lean-out and resulting knocking (pinging). It is however possible to build a fully adjustable Additional Weakening Device from scratch. The scratch-built device has the same configuration as the factory Additional Weakening Device, as shown in the image below:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

However, both the venturi and the air bleed restriction are replaced with simple needle valves (taps). This allows the amount of vacuum applied to the float bowl to be readily tuned by either restricting the air flowing in, or the vacuum pulling air out of the bowl.
In building the system, it is important to have a running supercharger with the idle pretty much set. This allows the throttle plate position at idle to be determined. A hole is then drilled 1½mm (~0.06”) from the edge of the butterfly in the relevant (upstream) side of the carburettor body. Remember, when the butterfly opens the hole must be in such a position that the butterfly will sweep over it, effectively moving it from upstream of the butterfly to downstream so that it communicates vacuum to the system. If the idle had not been set first, there is a chance that the hole ends up on the wrong side of the throttle plate. Suitable adaptors are then used to connect the carburettor body hole via vacuum hose to Tap 1. The taps need to be fuel resistant and able to pass a reasonable amount of air (you should be able to blow through it relatively easily when it’s fully open) – brass air compressor fittings are not a bad choice. Tap 1 is then connected to the top of the fuel bowl, again using vacuum hose. The fuel bowl needs to be sealed, with the vent of the fuel bowl connected to Tap 2. The other side of Tap 2 is then fitted into the air cleaner. During tuning of the device, it’s handy to mount Tap 2 inside the car via a fairly long length of vacuum hose, with the other end looping back into the air filter. This hose can then be shortening back once the tuning is complete.

Care needs to be taken in tuning the system. Adjusting Tap 1 will change the rate at which the air is drawn out of the float bowl, whilst adjusting Tap 2 changes the rate that air can flow in to the float bowl. The balance of the two adjustments determines the vacuum inside the float bowl, and hence the mixture setting at part-throttle. lf too big a vent is used, the air will flow back into the float bowl as fast as it is being evacuated, cancelling out the effect we are trying to achieve. On the other hand if it's too small, then the vacuum created in the float bowl will be sufficient to totally stop the fuel going into the engine, causing the engine to stall when the throttle is opened.

To tune the Additional Weakening Device:
a) Establish just how much Tap 2 needs to be open. We want Tap 2 to be controlling the air flow to the float bowl, but not strangling it to the point that the a vacuum develops in the float bowl (and the mixture changes) under full load. To do this, close Tap 1 so that no vacuum is communicated to the float bowl. Set Tap 2 fully open so that the float bowl is adequately vented. Drive the vehicle and check the third gear 30-60mph flat-out acceleration time. To do this, it's best to start below 30mph and have an offside start the stopwatch as the speedo passes 30mph. Hit it again when it reaches 60mph, but always drive on past that speed by a few mph.
b) When you are sure the 30-60mph acceleration times are consistent, close Tap 2 slightly and do the test again. We are looking for the point where Tap 2 begins to control the air flow to the float bowl by strangling it to the point that the a vacuum develops in the float bowl (and the mixture changes). Continue repeating the test (closing Tap 2 a little more each time) until you find the point at which the 30-60mph acceleration times starts to deteriorate. ln some instances you may find that Tap 2 can go all the way closed without affecting the performance, in which case open Tap 2 about two full turns. Once you find the point that the performance starts to deteriorate, open Tap 2 slightly to restore the engine's performance.
c) Open Tap 1 very slightly and check that the engine picks up properly. Take the car out on the road and drive at your most used cruising speeds. These may range from your in-town cruising speed of around 35mph (55km/h) up to freeway cruising speeds of 70mph (110km/h). If you have a vacuum gauge, note the vacuum at each speed you test at (the road should be dead flat if using a vacuum gauge). What you are looking for is the engine beginning to run lean and surge. This is the same thing that the standard FB/EK Holden motor will do if the main metering jet is too small. When lean surge starts, the car becomes slightly hesitant, and can begin to lightly miss.
d) lf the car is not surging, open Tap 1 a little bit more, making the fuel further small increment. Take the car out and try it again. Continue repeating the test (opening Tap 1 a little more each time) until you feel the car run into lean surge under cruise. When this happens, close Tap 1 slightly so that the lean surge just disappears.
e) Now re-check your 30-60mph acceleration time. The acceleration time should not have changed from those achieved originally. lf it has changed, it's because there is a slight reduction in mixture strength at full throttle. The Additional Weakening Device does not change the mixture under full throttle conditions. However, if the engine is under-carburretted, the engine may pull fuel from the float chamber fast enough to overtake the air supply back into the float chamber via Tap 2. lf this is the case, you will have to compensate for this effect by one of two means, either increase the richness of the mixture by having a slightly slimmer needle at the top end, or sacrifice some of the potential weakening effect by opening Tap 2 slightly wider.
f) Remember that in playing around with mixture strengths there is a chance that the engine runs lean. It is a good idea to keep an eye on the spark plug readings for any signs of running overly lean until you are confident the mixture is right.

Note that the above process has been set-up for simple testing. It is equally possible to tune the Additional Weakening Device on a dyno by setting Tap 2 to peak power then adjusting Tap 1 for a good mixture quality (by exhaust gas analysis) under cruise conditions.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

For this post I will continue on with some info on SU carbs, focussing on the float bowl capacity.

There is no doubt that adding 50-100% more horsepower will increase the fuel demand on a vehicle. The typical full-throttle engine fuel requirement is 0.5lb per horsepower per hour, which equates to 0.0833 gallons of petrol per hour per horsepower. Our Norman supercharged grey motor is likely to achieve a 50-100% increase in power, giving 110-150 horsepower. The fuel requirement is thus likely to be of the order of 8-12gph on pump fuel. Eldred flags within Supercharge! that feeding the vehicle can become a constraint, both via the fuel pump (which I will deal with separately) and via the carburetor float bowl. Most road-going Norman supercharged applications running on petrol will be unlikely to hit this limit, as the standard SU needle and seat will flow of the order of 15gph. A single (2”) SU needle and seat is thus likely to cope, and if we are running twin (1¾”) SUs we should have absolutely no issue. Note though that for red motors our horsepower may increase to double that shown above. This would mean that even twin SUs become marginal for red motor petrol flow. Regardless of what motor we are running, the issue above becomes increasingly important if running methanol (bear in mind that you need to flow 2-2½ times as much methanol as petrol)… a methanol slurping grey will be marginal with two standard SU float bowls, whilst a red motor meth monster will still be hungry being fed by four.

The carburetor float bowl is generally constrained by the size (diameter) of the fuel inlet needle and seat. A typical SU aftermarket (viton-tipped) needle and seat has a diameter of 0.090”. One improvement made since Eldred’s time is the availability of Grose jets (another type of needle and seat) for SUs. A Grose Jet is not a needle, but instead consists of two ball bearings in a solid brass cage, one large one that is moved by the float, and a smaller one that is moved by the bigger ball bearing until it shuts off the flow of fuel. The original reasoning behind the Grose Jets' design was to lower the liklihood that they would jam or stick (the original brass-tipped needless were reknowned for jamming - a lot less of a problem with modern viton tips). Grose-Jet inlet valves are available with orifices of 0.084", 0.099” and 0.125” diameters. As a comparison, Holley needle-and-seat assemblies are typically 0.097-0.150” diameter, whilst single-barrel Stromberg needle and seats ranged from 0.07-0.093” for Holdens (the aftermarket ones now available are typically 0.076” diameter). Note however that along with the diameter of the needle and seat, the fuel inlet pressure has a part to play. SU carburettors are happy to run on 1½-3½ psi, and overflow around 5 psi. Holley carburettors run happily at 5-7psi, whilst Stromberg carburettors operate on approximately 2½-4½ psi of fuel inlet pressure. Fuel flow is proportional to the square of the orifice diameter (i.e. flow α diameter2), and to the square root of inlet pressure (i.e. flow α√pressure). Calculating this through shows that a typical SU fuel bowl and standard needle and seat will have flow doubled if changing out to a Grose valve. The Grose-valved SU will flow nearly three times as much as a single-barrel Stromberg, but only two-thirds as much as a Holley i.e:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.jpg.html

The upshot of this is that if the standard SU float bowl is constraining the vehicle, changing to a Grose valve may solve the problem. If fuel flow is still constrained, the use of Holley float bowls (on SU carbs) may help. This sounds a little off-centre, but is exactly the solution implemented on the Norman supercharged 1963 Lil Horny Devil slingshot rail currently owned by Chris Batey:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.jpg.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mLzZfjMamY
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWrMQfr8Zr8
The Holley float bowl and associated parts are readily available and relatively cheap. The float bowl can be bolted to a piece of flat steel plate to form the rear of the bowl, as can be seen in the image below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... d.jpg.html

The original Holley mounting screws and gasket can be utilized. Note that Chris’ setup has two float bowls installed, one at either end of the inlet manifold (see photo below … the second bowl can be seen just sticking out from under the right-hand SU inlet trumpet):

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... a.jpg.html

Care needs to be taken in locating the Holley float bowl at an appropriate height relative to the SU carburetor jet, as the fuel bowl level affects the height of the fuel in the jet, and hence the mixture strength. The diagram below shows how the bowl may be constructed:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html

Note that for the outlet it is possible to drill and tap a hole into the back of the steel plate to accept a nozzle. In this case the accelerator pump assembly is retained to seal the bottom of the fuel bowl. Alternatively, fuel can be taken from the bottom of the accelerator pump assembly by removing the diaphragm, spring and pump arm and then tapping bottom of the float bowl to accept a nozzle. Note that the accelerator pump check ball and retainer strap, as shown in the photograph below should also be removed and the hole drilled out to remove the potential restriction:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html

For all-out race vehicles which wish to retain the SU carburettors, Eldred describes a modification to the SU float bowl which makes is operate as a weir fueled by a large capacity fuel pump. The “weir” is simply a hole drilled in the side of the float bowl at the desired fuel level. The standard SU float bowl operates as shown in the image below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 4.jpg.html

The float (shown in green) sits on top of the fuel level. As the fuel level drops (as per the left-hand image) the float drops with it, lowering and opening the needle valve. As the fuel valve rises to the desired level (as shown in the right hand image) the float rises, pushing u the needle and closing off fuel flow to the bowl. In Eldred’s weir modification, the float is fully removed, as per the image below:

http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 7.jpg.html

The fuel pump is able to freely supply fuel to the bowl at all times. Any fuel that the engine does not consume gets recycled back to the fuel tank. A restriction is placed into the feed line to the float bowl to stop the fuel flow from being excessive (and hence overflowing the float bowl). Provided the fuel pump has a high enough capacity, the fuel bowl level will never drop any lower than the weir overflow level. Whilst this system has more plumbing than the standard needle and seat, it is very resistant to the issue of jamming or plugging of the needle orifice.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).
OK, a quick post to whet your appetite again (everyone loves a FED... and especially a Norman-blown FED... and Harv really loves an injected Norman-blown FED ).
This one is Chris Stevenson’s front-engined dragster:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... f.jpg.html
Photo above from the Street Machine Hot Rod Annual 2009.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.jpg.html
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 2.jpg.html
Original website for the two photos above is here:
http://www.dragnews.com.au/index.php/fe ... ile-attack

Apparantly the 2008 Street Machine Hot Rod Annual has a feature on Chris' car - would love to get my hands on a copy or scan if anyone has one please.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler)

Having whetted your appetite with the slingshot rail above, I'll return back to the earlier discussion on fuelling the Norman. Earlier posts centred on carbs, this post will look at fuel quality.

One of the downsides to the sliding vane supercharger is that the vanes rub against the casing wall. This creates friction and some additional heat, and is also a source of some efficiency loss. Over time, the vanes wear down and must be replaced. If the vanes get too short they can cant sideways in the rotor and jam. This can lead to bending of the rotor shaft or snapping of the rotor. To reduce the friction, a lubricant is required.

Historically, straight engine oil was added to the fuel tank, with the resultant “two-stroke” mixture used to feed the engine via the supercharger. The oil was dosed between 1 pint of oil:7 gallons of fuel (56:1 as recommended in Supercharge!) and 1 pint of oil: 8.7 gallons of fuel (70:1 as recommended in an advertising brochure for the later (Mike) Norman superchargers). One issue associated with the “2-stroke approach” is that the resultant fuel can cause the carburettor to gum up over time. Note that some superchargers, notably the Judson, use an oiler that feeds oil into the induction system instead of dosing in the fuel tank. It would be possible to dose the oil between the carburettor and supercharger, removing any fuel system gumming issues. However, Eldred’s experience has shown that the Norman supercharger has a tendency to throw the oil droplets against the supercharger casing walls. This lubricates the casing well... but not the rotor slots. For this reason oil feeders liek the Judson are not a recommended solution to the gumming problem.

It has been suggested that an alternative to using engine oil would be one of the methanol additives, such as VP Racing M2 Upper Lube. However, discussion with VP Racing (you wonder what I do in my spare time ) indicates that M2 is not an appropriate product for this use. M2 needs heat to be effective as a lubricant which will not happen in a suck-through intake system. Due to the low temperature it will gum up the works even more than engine oil. VP Racing instead recommend using a high quality degummed castor oil (like Cool Power fortified castor oil), with some trial-and-error needed on dose rate. The cost of castor oil is around $20 per litre, similar to engine oil.

Similarly, it has been suggested that the lead replacement additive FlashLube may be a suitable replacement. Unlike M2, FlashLube acts as a lubricant without heat, and can be used as a straight lubricant (for example on door hinges). It is also designed to be non-gumming. Whilst it would work in theory, discussions with the Flashlube people show that the dose rate required is again very much unknown. FlashLube is normally dosed at 1000:1, which “feels” very low (i.e. it should not improve the lubricity of straight petrol very much at that dose rate). Practical tests have shown FlashLube can be dosed at 160:1 and still burn. FlashLube costs approximately twice the cost of engine oil (about $50/litre).

Working through the above for practical Norman operation, I would recomend to start out by dosing your fuel tank with engine oil at around 60:1. If you experience fuel system gumming (and the carby cleaning frequency is driving you crazy), switch to fortified castor oil at about the same dose rate. When you switch, take a look at the vanes, and then check again in six months time. Increase the dose rate if heavy vane wear is noted.

As a side issue, some references indicate that running oil in fuel is one of the very, very bad things about sliding vane supercharger operation. All superchargers have a hunger for octane – the higher the fuel octane, the higher the boost that can be run, or the more advanced the ignition timing. Motor oil does have a low octane value (it’s hard to predict an exact value, but it is likely to be worse than diesel, which has an octane rating around 20RON, compared to Australian pump petrol at 91-98RON). The references indicate that the resultant octane decrease from adding engine oil to fuel is substantial - for example:
“Sliding vane compressors have a serious liability for supercharging performance engines, in that oil mixed into the charge to lubricate the friction surfaces of the sliding vanes increases the likelihood of detonation, effectively raising the engines fuel octane number requirement” - Supercharging Performance Handbook.
To challenge this, I took a sample of normal 98 Octane Shell V-Power from a Sydney service station, and blended it with typical engine oil (Shell Helix HX3) at 60:1 (Eldred’s recommended rate). I then had the
sample tested in a refinery fuels laboratory for octane. The result (98.7RON) shows that the effect of the oil is minimal with modern fuels. Bear in mind that the accuracy of octane testing is around ±1RON. The upshot of this is that whilst octane is critical for any supercharger, running oil into your Norman does not turn pump fuel into tractor fuel.

Regards,
Harv (2-stroke Norman supercharger fuelling apprentice).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:50 am

Ladies and Gents,

My recent posts have focused on the fuel side of feeding the Norman supercharger. There is probably still a bit of work that I want to do (mainly around the fuel pump). For now though I will swing topics to the air side. This post will focus on the grey motor camshaft - getting our blown grey to breathe.

To start off the process of thinking about the grey motor camshaft, it is probably a good idea to look at what we start with – the standard GMH bumpstick. The specifications for the standard grey motor camshaft are as per below:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.png.html

Note that the valve timing for all grey motor camshafts is the same. However, from FE engine number L418726 the grey motor camshaft was modified to give “quieter valve train operation and to delay valve bounce to higher engine r.p.m.”. This would indicate that the later camshafts have had the opening and closing ramps modified. This lets the valves open and close at the same angle, but slows down the valve as it approaches the seat. This stops the valve slamming into the seat, which can cause them to bounce off the seat. Another interesting change is that Workshop manuals from FC onwards start to report “actual” valve timing instead of advertised. Advertised timing shows when the valves just start to move – typically when the lifter has moved 0.006” (the SAE standard distance). More useful numbers, which are often used to compare camshafts are the same measurements taken at a lifter movement of 0.050”. This is probably what the “actual” numbers given in the FC and later workshop manuals are referring to (i.e. the FX-FE workshop manuals show the advertised durations, whilst the FC and later manuals show the durations at 0.050”. However, it is not certain that 0.050” is the value GMH used… it could well be 0.040” for example (up until recently, camshaft manufacturers used a very wide variety of lifts to report this number).

The upshot of the above numbers can be summarized by showing how the valves are open as the camshaft spins clockwise. In the diagram below, TDC refers to Top Dead Centre (the piston right at the top of the cylinder bore), whilst BDC refers to Bottom Dead Centre (the piston right at the bottom of the cylinder bore). For our inlet valve, we get the diagram below (using the Advertised numbers) for a bog-stock grey motor camshaft.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.png.html
Starting in the upper left corner of the circle and moving around clockwise, our piston is finishing the exhaust stroke (pushing out exhaust gases). At 4º above the top of the stroke the inlet valve opens, using some of that exhaust gas flow to suck in the inlet charge. Our piston hits the top (TDC) and starts moving downwards, with the inlet valve open and inlet charge flowing into the cylinder. The piston reaches the bottom of it’s stroke (BDC) and starts moving up, compressing the charge. Our inlet charge has been flowing flat-out through the open inlet valve, and the inertia keeps bringing gas in even though the piston is beginning to compress. At 40º after BDC, the inlet valve closes and we continue compression against shut valves. Our inlet valve has been open for a total of 224º (this is referred to as 224º duration). Note that this is normal, and more than the 180º we would expect if the inlet valves only ever opened on the inlet stroke.

For our exhaust inlet valve, we get the diagram below (again using Advertised values) for our bog-stock grey motor.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 5.png.html
Starting in the bottom right corner of the circle and moving around clockwise, our piston is finishing the power stroke (moving downwards under the ignited fuel/air mix). At 46º before the bottom of the stroke the exhaust valve opens, using some of the cylinder pressure to start pushing out exhaust gas. Our piston hits the bottom (BDC) and starts moving upwards, with the exhaust valve open and flowing out exhaust gas from the cylinder. The piston reaches the top of it’s stroke (TDC) and starts moving down, beginning the inlet stroke. We leave the exhaust valve open for another 6º, using the flowing exhaust gas to help suck in the incoming air/fuel charge. At 6º after TDC the exhaust valve closes and we continue our intake stroke. Our exhaust valve has been open for a total of 232º duration. Again, this is normal, and more than the 180º we would expect if the exhaust valves only ever opened on the exhaust stroke.

Of note, there is a period when both the intake and exhaust valves are both open – the inlet opens to let the fuel/air charge in, and the exhaust remains open to use it’s flow to help suck in the inlet charge. This period with both valves open is known as overlap. For our bog-stock grey motor camshaft, the Advertised overlap is 10º, as can be seen in the diagram below.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 3.png.html

Big message here – inlet and exhaust valves open earlier and close later than the inlet and exhaust strokes to help fill (or empty) the cylinder, and sometimes are both open at the same time. That “early and late” behavior is called cam timing, and needs looking at when we change things with a supercharger.

As an aside, to help put the above numbers into perspective a common way of describing aftermarket camshafts is in terms of two numbers (for example “30/70” or “40/80”). The two numbers refer to the angle that the intake opens and closes (it assumes that the exhaust valves open at a similar angle). The bigger the numbers the more duration, and the lumpier the camshaft. For example, for a 30/70 cam:
• Intake opens at 30º BTDC (remember that the standard grey motor cam opens at 4º... the 30/70 opens the inlet much earlier),
• Intake closes at 70º ABDC (much later than the standard 40º),
• Exhaust opens at 70º BBDC (much earlier than the standard 46º), and
• Exhaust closes at 30º ATDC (much later than the standard 6º).
• The duration for this cam is 280º (30º+70º+180º) for both inlet and exhaust, which is longer than the standard camshaft’s 224º inlet duration and 232º exhaust duration.
• Overlap for this cam is 100º (30º+70º) which is much larger than the standard camshaft’s 10º.
Note that the standard camshaft is not quite so equal in valve opening and closing (i.e. the exhaust and inlet valves do not open, nor close, at the same angle). This makes it hard to describe the standard grey motor cam in the same way as a “30/70”. However, if we take some average numbers, the standard grey motor camshaft is roughly a “5/43”.

The last aspect of our standard camshaft is valve lift. The higher the valve lift, the more the valve will open. This gives increased flow of gas (kind of like turning on a bathroom tap more to fill the bath faster). In the diagram below, the red camshaft is a low-lift cam. The arrows show that the valve does not open much. The green camshaft is a high-lift cam. The red arrows show the red cam opens the valve much more, allowing for better gas flow. For our standard grey motor camshaft, the valve lift is 0.34”.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 8.png.html

Now that we understand the standard grey motor camshaft, we need to think how it will behave when a Norman supercharger is bolted on. Notwithstanding the discussion below, the overall message is that many supercharged motors run perfectly well with the stock (naturally aspirated) camshaft. Equally, the advice from several sources (for example Supercharged! Design, Testing and Installation of Supercharger Systems) indicates that if in doubt the stock camshaft should be used. This feels like sound advice given that the early Norman superchargers were designed to operate with the standard grey or red motor camshaft.

However, the above is not to say that a change in camshaft (increased duration and higher valve lift) cannot bring about increased performance in a Norman supercharged grey motor. When we look at typical naturally aspirated “hot” grey motor cams, it is apparent that a major change is an increase in overlap, duration and lift. For example, for the range of Camtech Cams (and one of the Waggot cams):
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 0.png.html

As we move down the table (increasingly hotter cams), the inlet and exhaust duration increases, as does valve lift and overlap.

When considering a change to the standard grey motor camshaft to accommodate a Norman supercharger, there are two key issues that we wish to address. The first issue is probably the more important of the two. Adding a supercharger to the engine will greatly increase the flow of gases (intake and exhaust) through the engine. Whilst the intake side flows better because of the boost pressure, the exhaust side still relies on cylinder pressure to blow the gases out. The simple way to think of this is that there is no point adding a supercharger and jamming more air in, if we cannot get that air to flow back out again. This means that we want a camshaft that:
a) lifts the exhaust valve higher for more gas flow (i.e. fills the bathtub faster by opening the tap more), and/or
b) holds the exhaust open longer to allow the additional exhaust gas more time to flow (i.e. a longer exhaust duration).
We can increase exhaust duration by opening the valve earlier (as per the pale green area in the diagram below), or by closing it later (as per the orange area in the diagram below). Whilst both changes will work, closing the valve later can cause some issues, particularly at low engine rpm.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 9.png.html

This brings us to the second issue, which is related to the cam overlap. Naturally aspirated engines have camshafts with large amounts of overlap, which uses the exhaust flow to help “suck” in inlet air/fuel, especially at higher rpm. However, our supercharged engine has a pressurized inlet manifold, so needs this inlet charge encouragement less. In a supercharged engine with high overlap, what tends to happen is that the pressurized inlet charge blows into the cylinder and straight out the open exhaust valve. This will give poor economy and poor emissions performance, and can lead to a loss of performance at low engine speed where boost is low. In the overlap diagram below we can see that by closing the exhaust valve later (trying to increase exhaust duration for our supercharged grey motor), the orange area would increase overlap.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 9.png.html

More importantly, increasing overlap will also reduce the boost pressure. As a guide (From Supercharge!), the boost pressure will fall by about 5% of absolute pressure for each 10º by which valve overlap is increased. The standard (advertised) overlap is 10º, giving the following boost reductions:
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 6.png.html

For example, a grey motor running 10psi boost with the standard camshaft will drop to 5psi if the overlap is increased to 50º. Whilst the overlap may be of help at high RPM, it will lead to a low boost, sluggish vehicle at low RPM. For this reason, we generally want a camshaft for our Norman supercharged grey motor with as little overlap as possible. This means that to get better exhaust flow we are looking for a camshaft with higher exhaust valve lift, or that opens the exhaust valve earlier (not closes it later).

In short if we want good all round driveability (most Norman supercharger installations), the standard camshaft is a good choice. The later camshaft (mid FE Holden onwards) is better than the earlier grey motor camshaft, as it will delay valve bounce without affecting timing. If we do not mind sacrificing some low-end drivability and emissions, then we are looking for a camshaft with increased lift, increased exhaust duration (through opening the exhaust valve earlier) and preferably low overlap.

There are a number of Australian camshaft grinders who can regrind the original grey motor camshaft to suit high performance applications. These include Wade, Camtech, Clive Cams, Tighe and Waggot. Note however that most camshaft grinders do not have dedicated supercharger grinds for the Holden grey motor, and instead rely on the high performance naturally aspirated grinds. This is different to say small block Chevrolet engines, where supercharging is more common and camshaft grinders are able to supply dedicated supercharger grinds. As an example, for a mildly blown grey (5-10psi of boost and primarily street use) Camtech recommends the Part Number 609 camshaft shown in the table above. This will increase advertised exhaust duration from 224º to 284º, though notably will also increase advertised overlap from 10º to 64º. This is a substantive degree of overlap, and would see a 10psi blown grey motor lose almost half the boost pressure… perhaps not an issue for all-out sustained high-RPM work, but of serious concern with a street engine.

As a comparison, the table below shows the range of supercharger camshafts available from Weiand (via Lunati) for small block Chevrolets. Note that the durations remain long for good exhaust flow, being increased from a typical factory 270º to 290º (especially in the 01006 and 01007 performance cams). More notably, the advertised overlap has been reduced from a typical factory SBC value of 35º to nil… a far cry from the 64º grey motor camshaft recommended by Camtech above. The exception is the 01007 camshaft with 25º of overlap (still a far cry from 64º), though Lunati note that this is only suitable for high boost engines – probably due to the boost loss at low RPM.
http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... c.png.html


In short, supercharged camshafts are readily available for motors like small block Chevrolets, but are not so common (if available at all) for the Holden grey motor. To get your hands on a “blower cam” for a supercharged grey motor will require custom cam grinding… expensive to say the least. The upshot of the above is again that for most Norman supercharged grey motors the standard stock camshaft should be used. For sustained high-RPM use a normal grey motor “hot cam (performance grind) may be suitable though
a) will take some trial and error to balance the resultant boost loss against high RPM power gains.
b) will drop boost at low RPM.
c) Will blow more unburnt fuel out the exhaust at low RPM.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger bumpstick fiddler).

Our last post looked at the intake timing needed to get our Norman blown grey motor to breathe. This post will look at the other side of breathing – our SU carburetor, and what changes we may need to make to the standard SU.

One issue commonly referred to when carbureted superchargers are discussed is the need for a “blower carb”, or a “boost referenced” carb. Boost referencing a carburetor is a modification (often done to Holley carburetors) to allow the power valve to take signal from between the supercharger and engine. The power valve is used (on some carburetors like Holleys and B-model Strombergs) to provide additional fuel under heavy load. On a normally aspirated engine (for example a standard grey motor with single BXOV-1 Stromberg carburetor) the power valve takes it signal from the inlet manifold. The manifold vacuum at idle holds the power valve closed, preventing the mixture getting too rich – see the image below left. Under heavy load, the manifold vacuum decreases, allowing the power valve to open and richen up the mixture – see the image below right.
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On a suck-through supercharger system (like the Norman superchargers) a normal power valve will see vacuum under idle, as per the image below. This keeps the power valve shut as required.
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However, under load the supercharger can draw hard enough that vacuum continues to exist between the supercharger and carburetor. If the power valve is taking it’s signal from between the supercharger and carburetor (as per the image below), then the power valve will never open, leading to lean-out under load.
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Many Holley carburetors for suck-through supercharging are thus “boost referenced” by drilling and tapping the vacuum signal between the supercharger and engine as per the image below (an alternative for Holleys is just to pull out the power valve altogether, and to run overly rich main jets).
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The SU carburetor however does not utilize a power valve for full-throttle enrichment, and instead relies on the needle profile. SU carburetors in suck-through configuration are thus not boost-referenced (though as noted above may need to have an additional weakening device fitted to allow for overly rich part-throttle mixtures).

As an aside, SU carburettors can also be used in blow-through installations (such as was done from the factory for the MG Metro which used a Garrett T3 turbo blowing through a SU HIF44). In a blow-through supercharger installation, a number of other modifications are required to an SU carburettor, primarily sealing the carburettor (or mounting the entire carburettor in a pressurised box) to prevent fuel and air being blown out. This is not required for the Norman supercharger due to the suck-through installation.

When operating with a naturally aspirated engine, the carburetor can become the limiting factor on horsepower. The Holden grey motor is a good example of this, with the original single Stromberg carburetor being fairly asthmatic. A common way of increasing horsepower is to increase the number of carburetors (twins or triples), or to debottleneck the existing carburetor. There are a number of tricks that can be applied to carburetors to make them flow more air. For our Norman supercharged grey motor, we are likely to be running SU carburetors. The standard SU carburetor can be modified to flow around one third more air than standard. As an example, the following modifications can be made to a HS4 carburettor (I have taken this information from Tuning BL’s A-Series Engine, by David Vizard):
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Bear in mind that our supercharged grey motor, making around 110BHP will want around 50% additional air flow over the standard GMH engine. As we noted in earlier posts above, two 1½” SUs or a single 2” SU are suitable for supercharged grey motors, whilst for those not chasing grunt a single 1¾” or two 1¼” SUs may suffice. If we were running short on carburetor capacity (CFM) for our Norman sueprcharged grey motor, it is probably just as easy to increase the size of the SUs used (or the number of SUs) than to undertake the kind of modifications above. The capacity of various SU carburettors is given below:
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The upshot of this is that as a general guidance, there is little need to increase the air flow capacity of SU carburetors for Norman superchargers – choose the right number and size instead.

However, when engine bay space prevents additional carburettors (or budget means you need to use the SUs that you already have), there are some sensible choices to be made. The last two modifications in the table above (modifying the piston and bridge areas) are not for the faint hearted, and are not reversible. Unless you are looking for every last ounce of horsepower from an existing carb, then they are probably not worth doing. Thinning the throttle shaft is another area with a decent flow gain, though again not for the faint hearted.

One modification not noted above is the removal of the SU carburettor over-run limiting valves (often called a poppet valve – see the red arrow in the images below).
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http://s929.photobucket.com/user/V8EKwa ... 1.png.html

This modification was present on the SUs on my large Norman, which was allegedly fed one of Mike Norman’s race vehicles. The over-run limiting valve is a precisely set spring-loaded plate valve is located in the throttle disc. When the throttle is snapped shut, very high vacuum can develop in the inlet manifold. If the vacuum is greater than about 22"Hg, the mixture becomes too weak to ignite easily, causing misfire. This can result in unburnt fuel passing into the exhaust system where it can detonate (backfire). The over-run valve opens under high manifold vacuum conditions (i.e. when the throttle is snapped shut), reducing the vacuum and supplying a quantity of correct fuel/air mixture through the throttle disc. The correct combustion achieved reduces both backfiring and emissions. The over-run limiting valve can be readily removed, and the resultant throttle disc hole soldered up. This is a moderately simple change, and is probably good for around 5% or so extra flow. Whilst this change is reversible, it will entail replacing the throttle plates.

The change above that does deliver moderate increases in air flow, is simple and easily reversible is adding a ram tube to the inlet of the carb. A ram tube and associated filter (either sock-type or an enclosed K&N type filter) is a cheap investment, looks period correct and delivers a little extra flow, all of which would appear worthwhile. Note however that not all ram tubes are created equally. The diagram below (again from Tuning BL’s A-Series Engine, by David Vizard) shows different type ram tubes, and the % flow increase seen over a standard SU carburetor.
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The message here is that care needs to be taken in selecting the right shape ram tube, and that a smooth, radiused edge with good rollback is most likely to be successful. Pictured to below to the left are the ram tubes offered by SU Midel, which have a large radius and high rollback (these are like types 7, 8 and 9 above – a good choice).
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Pictured to the above right are the ram tubes offered by Redline Performance Products which are similar to type 10 above – again a good choice. Notice that ram tubes of the types 1 and 4 in the image above show a substantial flow loss over the standard SU carburetor – choosing ram tubes of this type could well lead to the Norman supercharger being strangled for air, particularly if the size (or number) of SUs was marginal in the first place.

The overall message here is that for our Norman supercharged grey motor we will use a suck-through configuration, utilize big enough SU carburetors (or enough small ones) to suit the air flow required, probably leave the SU internals standard, and if fitting a ram tube to the inlet will need to take care of what shape it is in order to prevent a flow restriction.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

As discussed above, Norman superchargers require a relief valve in order to operate safely. Whilst this is somewhat fiddly, the results of not using one can be catastrophic. I’ve stolen the photo to the right from Pete, which shows what a blower backfire can do to an aluminium manifold. This setup was running 6psi on a positive displacement suck-through setup on a red motor…. kinda similar to a Norman. As well as bursting the welds, the blower bang also managed to blow the Teflon off the seals:


Blower bangs can be very, very nasty if no relief valve is fitted. Ever wonder why many GMC supercharged motors have blower restraints (as well as a burst panel)? To stop the blower rocketing off into the stands should a blower bang.

Some guidance to relief valves is contained in Supercharge!:
• Mount the relief valve as close to the supercharger as possible. Consider a relief valve at both ends of the manifold.
• Relief valves should be of considerable area. For a 3-litre motor they should be at least 4 inch2 (for example a square hole 2”x2”, or a round hole of 2¼” diameter).
• Relief valves should be set to 50% more than the manifold pressure maximum (for example if we wish to deliver 10psi boost, the relief valve should be set at 15psi).

Very, very rough calculations show that Eldred’s sizing of 4 inch2 is appropriate for the red motor type Normans (200ci/rev) operating around 4500rpm. The smaller Normans (80ci/rev) would still need around 2 inch2, though are safer at 4 inch2.
The relief valves favoured by Eldred are a plate type, consisting of a moving aluminium disc on an edge seal. The disc covers a round hole in the inlet manifold. The disc is located by three guide studs arranged around the circumference of the disk. The studs also holds a fixed triangular retainer. A set of springs (often reused valve springs) go between the triangular retainer and the aluminium disc. The drawing and photos to the right show this type of relief valve. The relief valve pop pressure is set by tightening the stud nuts down.



The dimensions shown in the image below have been taken from a working Norman supercharger (my water cooled Norman). The image (from left to right) shows the aluminium disc, retainer and a rubber washer that had been used under the disk. The washer may be needed if the aluminium edge seal is not quite true, either from poor original machining or from being smacked around over time when the valve pops. The valve had been fitted over a 1.79” diameter hole in the manifold, giving a relief valve size of 2.5inch2. As seen above, this is probably the smallest size valve suitable for a grey motor type Norman, and undersized for the larger red motor sizes. Three ¼”x3” long bolts were utilized to mount the assembly. The valve had been fitted with a spring with dimensions as shown in the bottom right of the image. The spring had a stiffness of 124lb/inch, and a potential to compress up to 0.9” before reaching coil bind (note that this is stiffer than a typical used grey motor valve spring, which have tension of around 85lb/inch and a potential to compress up to ~1” before reaching coil bind). This gives the ability to adjust the valve to a manifold relief pressure from zero to 135psi (fitting a used grey motor spring would give a pressure range of zero to 100psi). Using Eldred’s 50%
guidance above, this means that we could run the supercharger at up to 90psi with the spring fitted, or up to 67psi with the grey motor valve springs used... not that we would ever be running a Norman at those pressures.



A similar plate type of relief valve is manufactured and sold by Weiand as part number 7155 (photo below upper), with a larger size available as part number 7158 (photo below middle).







The Weiand assemblies are of similar design to Eldred’s triangular plates, though simpler in construction (only two bolts, and rectangular plate rather than three bolts and triangular). The relief valves are again adjusted by tightening the studs (or by adding shim washers under the bolt heads). The design uses a gasket, avoiding the machining tolerances required by Eldred’s edge seal (though in doing so are more susceptible to gasket leaks or blowout). The smaller 7155 assembly can tolerate a hole size up to about 1” diameter (0.8inch2 relief area), and is provided with springs of 216lb/inch stiffness (0.6” travel to coil bind). This gives an ability to deliver from zero to 165psi.

The Blower Shop also offers a plate type relief valve as part number 2589, mounted with 3/8-16UNC set screws. This assembly is manufactured to suit a hole diameter of ¾” (0.44inch2).





AussieSpeed also sell a “universal back fire valve”, cut from 12mm billet aluminium plate. The kit is designed to have the rear plate welded to the inlet manifold to prevent supercharger damage. These can be cut down to fit in tight areas





Realistically, the Weiand, Blower Shop and AussieSpeed valves do not have sufficient size to act as back fire valves for the Norman supercharger unless a separate (and much larger) burst panel is employed.

Supercharger relief valves should be pressure tested before the manifold is fitted to the vehicle. To do this, all openings are blanked off with flat steel plate, using rubber sheet gaskets. A compressed air hose and gauge is fitted and the pressure slowly increased until the relief valve pops, taking care not to overpressure the manifold should the valve stick. The adjusting nuts are then tightened or loosened, and the process repeated until the desired set pressure is achieved. WARNING: Pneumatic testing a manifold like this is dangerous. If the manifold fails before the valve open, it can fragment and throw pieces of metal a long way, and very fast. The pop pressure should be approached very, very slowly and not exceeded if the valve does not lift. Faceshield definietley recommended for this one. If you have the ability to use water pressure instead of air, this is a much safer approach (water does not compress and contain as much energy as air).

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:51 am

A quick update on some of the measuring that has been going on. Attached below is an update of the rotor drawing for the various Norman superchargers. The aim by the end is to end up with a decent set of drawings of the entire setup (rotors, casings, manifolds and drives). This should be useful for the next guy trying to fabricate manifolds, or seeing whether a given Norman will fit under the bonnet.



Apologies again for the thread jumping around a bit - that's the price you pay for doing this as a thread rather than a Guide.

Cheers,
Harv

For this post, I will take a look at the registration hurdles we are likely to face in installing a Norman sueprcahrger to our early Holden. In an ideal world, supercharging our Holden grey motor would be as simple as bolt up and go. The bolt up part is tricky enough in itself. However, installing a supercharger is a modification which requires engineering certification. Supercharging has the capacity to substantially increase a vehicle’s power and performance and is generally considered on the same basis as a performance engine conversion (like installing a V8). In the information below, I will summarise the requirements from the National Code of Practice (NCOP) Supercharger and Turbocharger Installation Code LA3. Before anyone asks, I know full well that some engineers will pass a vehicle with substantially less than the below, and that some registration authority inspection stations will issue a roadworthy regardless of what is under the bonnet (“but my cuzzy has a blowa on his fooly sick Monaro mate, 1000hp, no engineers mate”) – I am only aiming to show what the guidelines are.
Our starting point is to determine exactly when certification for a supercharger is required. The table below gives some guidance. Essentially, if we are aiming for more than a 20% power increase (and we should be!), then certification will be required. Assuming that we are Norman supercharging our grey motor, then Code LA3 applies.



Code LA3 specifies a number of requirements, listed below. Because FB/EK Holdens are pre-ADR, a number of mandatory safety upgrades are required. These are:
• Seatbelts must be installed for all seating positions (all outboard seating positions require retractor type lap/sash seatbelts and inboard seating positions either lap/sash or lap belts),
• Split or dual braking system. As the early Holden brake systems are single, this requires a new master cylinder and appropriate piping.
• Windscreen washers must be fitted. This could be a period type Trico set up, or an el-cheapo plastic bottle and pump from SuperCheap Auto.
• Two speed windscreen wipers with a fast speed of at least 45 cycles per minute and a slow speed of at least 20 cycles per minute must be fitted. Note that the original FB/EK single speed wipers are acceptable provided yours can be shown to have a cycle speed of 45 cycles per minute or more.
• A windscreen demister must be fitted. This could be a period Warmaride heater, an electric aftermarket heater or as simple as a 12V hair dryer plumbed into pool cleaner hose.
• A flat or convex external rear vision mirror complying with the latest version of ADR14 must be fitted to the driver’s side of the vehicle.
• Flashing direction indicator lights must be fitted at the front and rear of the vehicle (not a problem from EK onwards, though an option for earlier Holdens).
• The engineer signatory may specify a higher tyre speed rating than the original specifications and the fitting of an additional tyre placard indicating the minimum tyre requirements. The load rating of tyres must not be reduced from that specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
• A collapsible steering column must be fitted.

Additionally,
• Supercharger drive belts and pulleys must be shielded to prevent injury from accidental contact with rotating components.
• With respect to emissions, as our early Holden was manufactured prior to 1986, no emissions tests (as called up through ADR 37/00) apply. Similarly, because our early Holden was not certified to ADR83/00 (2005), a noise test is not required.
• Whilst the original Norman supercharger installations on early Holdens were contained under the bonnet, this may not be possible for all configurations. Any supercharger and induction system components sticking up above the original bonnet line must be covered with a bonnet scoop/bulge meeting the following:
a) the top surface of the scoop/bulge must not be more rigid than the original bonnet.
b) the scoop/bulge must be “low rise”. To check this, a 165mm diameter circle is placed on the bonnet in front of the scoop/bulge and rolled rearwards until it touches the scoop/bulge. The scoop/bulge must be low enough that no part of the scoop/bulge touches the circle above it’s centerline.



c) Whilst there is no maximum height specified for a scoop/bulge, it must not restrict the field of view of the driver under normal operating conditions. The driver’s field of view requirements are determined by sitting in the driver’s seat with the seat pushed right back. It must be possible to see either the surface of the road eleven meters in front of the driver’s eye (red line in the diagram) or the front edge of the original body when looking across the top of the bonnet scoop (blue line in the diagram).



There are some fancy ways of working out how tall the driver is, but a simple way is to take the eye position as a point 730mm above and 270mm forward of the junction of the seat cushion and squab. For our FB/EK Holden, this means we can (roughly!) fit a 6” tall bonnet scoop as per the photos below.



d) The edges at the front of a scoop/bulge likely to contact a pedestrian in a collision must be well rounded with a minimum of 10mm radius. All edges and corners must have a radius of not less than 5mm.
e) The scoop/bulge must not have reflective surfaces that will cause glare.
f) Plastic or fiberglass is acceptable, providing that the hole in the bonnet does not substantially reduce the strength or impact resistance of the bonnet and no rigid component (such as an air cleaner or carburetor) protrudes beyond the original bonnet profile. This kind of defeats the purpose if we are installing the scoop to cover a Norman supercharger installation. In reality, it means either the scoop is made of mild steel of the same thickness as the original bonnet, or everything is tucked under the bonnet.
g) If any bonnet reinforcing braces are cut or modified, the bonnet must not be weakened and have no sharp edges.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).


For this post, we will take a look at rotor clearance and end-thrust.

The rotor on a Norman supercharger is held in place by bearings at either end. The bearings are held in place to the end plates with circlips, preventing the bearing from moving axially. The means that when the bearings and end plates are installed, the casing, end plate and bearing are locked in position and cannot move relative to each other. In the overview image below, we can see:
a) The rotor (grey) lying in the casing (yellow),
b) The drive-end end plate (dark green) bolted to the right-hand end of the casing, with its bearing (dark blue) held in place by a circlip (pale green). Trapped between the end plate and bearing is the drive-end seal (purple).
c) The non-drive end end plate (brown) bolted to the left-hand end of the casing, with its bearing (orange) held in place by a circlip (pale green).



The non-drive end bearing is often a two-piece bearing (like the Type 65’s bearing), where the inner and outer races are able to be pulled apart by hand. Whilst this sounds strange, the inner race has a wire cage that retains the bearing balls. The two-piece design means that the non-drive end bearing cannot take any thrust load at all – if the rotor shaft tries to move axially, the bearing simply slips out the inner race. This is useful in the Norman superchargers, as it allows the rotor steel to grow longer as it gets hot, expanding out through the rear bearing. If we assume that the rotor starts at ambient temperature (25ºC) and gets as hot as 75ºC, the 50ºC temperature change is likely to change the rotor length by around 0.06%. This means a Type 65 rotor will grow some 0.006”. Whilst this does not sound like much, bear in mind that typical cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing is 0.010-0.015” at the drive end and 0.025” at the non-drive end. As the rotor expands, it takes up quite a bit of the extra clearance at the non-drive end. The cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the non-drive end is determined by the thickness of the gaskets (shown in red in the attached diagram) between the end plates and casing (both drive end and non-drive end). The thicker the gaskets, the more clearance at the non-drive end.
The drive-end bearing is a one-piece bearing. Pressing up against the bearing is a thrust washer (shown in pink in the diagram above). The thrust washer is stepped so that it bears on the bearing inner race only. The thrust washer is keyed to the rotor shaft, though free to move along it. Pressing up against the thrust bearing is the drive pulley (shown in white), again keyed to the rotor shaft though free to move along it. Pressing up against the pulley is a pulley washer (shown in pale blue), followed by the shaft nut (shown in red). This is where things get interesting. When the drive-end assembly is put together and the shaft nut is tightened up, it begins to draw the rotor through the drive-end plate, bearing, pulley and washers (in the direction of the red arrow in the diagram). This reduces the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end. Thus for the drive-end, the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing is determined by how far the drive nut is tightened. When assembling the supercharger, care must be taken not to “flog the hell” out of the shaft nut, as this will change the clearance. The shaft nut should only be adjusted with the end-plate off the casing so that the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end can be checked with feeler gauges. If the shaft nut is adjusted with the end casing on, it is not possible to determine what the resultant clearance will be. This also means that the nut must not move during operation (say by vibration).
It is thus important that the shaft nut be a lock-nut in good condition – not one that has been assembled/disassembled until the nylon is worn. An alternative to using nylock lock nuts is to use two jam nuts. This is prevalent in the later (Mike) Norman superchargers, where castellated jam nuts are used – see the image below, where one of the two castellated nuts has been removed whilst the other remains on the shaft.



The process of having clearances set by the lock-nut occurs when the pulley washer is sized as per the image labelled 1 in the diagram below.



Al – if you are reading this, be very wary of setting the drive-end clearance on your Judson. Talking to George, the Judson shaft nut does not “bottom out” i.e. it is as per the image 1 above. Tighten it too much, and clearances will change.

One way to limit the risk of shaft nut movement is to blueprint the pulley washer. This is done by allowing the shaft nut to bottom-out on its threads as per the image labeled 2. The shaft nut can then be torqued up tight, lowering the chance of movement. This then means that the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end is independent of how far the drive nut is tightened, and instead is determined by the thickness of the pulley washer. The pulley washer thickness is then chosen so that the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end is correct (around 0.010”). A thicker pulley washer will decrease the end-clearance, as per the image labeled 5. Note that if adding additional washers/shims to make a “thicker” pulley washer, care needs to be taken that the additional washers/shims do not bear against the shaft step, as shown by the orange shims in the image labeled 3. Shims/washers that bear on this step do not decrease the end-clearance... they just drive the shaft nut along the shaft. A thinner pulley washer will increase the end-clearance, as per the image labeled 4.
Overall, the process for setting the end clearances then becomes:
a) Install the bearing into the drive end plate.
b) Install the drive end plate/bearing assembly onto the rotor.
c) Install the thrust washer, drive pulley and pulley washer onto the rotor.
d) Tighten the shaft nut until it bottoms out.
e) Check the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end with a pair of feeler gauges, aiming for 0.010”. If the clearance greater than 0.010”, install a thinner pulley washer (or skim down the existing one). If the clearance is less than 0.010”, install a thicker pulley washer or shim washer.
f) Install the non-drive end bearing inner race onto the rotor.
g) Install the clearanced rotor and end-plate assembly to the casing together with an appropriate gasket.
h) Install the outer bearing into the non-drive end plate.
i) Fit plastigauge to the non-drive end of the rotor.
j) Install the non-drive end plate/bearing assembly onto the rotor/casing casing together with an appropriate gasket.
k) Remove the non-drive end plate/bearing assembly from the rotor/casing casing. Check the end-clearance by reading the plastigauge, aiming for 0.025”. If the clearance is less than 0.025”, replace the end-plate gaskets with thicker ones. If the clearance is more than 0.025”, replace the end-plate gaskets with thinner ones.

With respect to bearing thrust, there is not a huge amount of thrust loading in a Norman supercharger. The main culprit for thrust loading is (often minute) amounts of misalignment between the crankshaft and supercharger pulleys. The Norman supercharger (and it’s Judson cousin) relies on an interference fit on the rotor shaft to hold the rotor in place – there is no effective thrust bearing. If the rotor tries to move in the direction of the red arrow in the diagram, it can slip through the bearings. This reduces the end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end and can cause end-plate gouging. This would be the case if the crankshaft pulley is too far forward (in front of the supercharger pulley). If the rotor tries to move opposite the direction of the red arrow in the diagram, the shaft nut, pulley washer, pulley and thrust washer will bear up against the drive end bearing inner race, preventing rotor movement. This would be the case if the crankshaft pulley is too far backwards (behind the supercharger pulley). Whilst not catastrophic, it is not great practice to load up a ball bearing in this fashion. Given the above limitations in thrust control, it is important that supercharger pulleys are adequately aligned. This is a particular issue when vee-belts are used, and less of an issue where non-shouldered gilmer belts are employed.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

For this post, I am going to start to present some of the processes used in overhauling a Norman supercharger. The example I will use below is a Type 65.
From previous posts, we had taken a look at the casing and had had it honed. Once the casing has been honed, care must be taken that the cast iron liner is not left to rust. A thin coat of light machine oil (Singer sewing machine oil from Woolworths) should be maintained at all times. The casing can be cleaned up and then polished on a buffing wheel. This can be as simple as a light cut and then polish, or could be a full sand down to remove dents and scratches followed by a multi-step polish to a mirror finish. In the example that follows I have used a light cut and polish, rather than the latter. This gives a nice shine and protects the aluminum sufficiently for our purposes.
Prior to any further assembly, the casing should be given a good clean with some kerosene, the water jackets flushed. I prefer to fit some temporary steel 3/8”NPT nipples to the water jackets and then some heater hose offcuts to let me connect to tap pressure. I then give the water jacket a really good flooosh out backwards and forwards to make sure it is clean. After the flush out, air-blow everything down and then reapply some light machine oil to the liner.



Fit some new 1½” brass welsh plugs to the water jackets. The original plugs were of the cup-type (albeit steel), which can be used. Used a smidgen of sealer around each plug and then tap the plugs in using a socket as a drift.



It is a good idea to pressure check the water jackets at this stage. The temporary steel 3/8”NPT nipples and heater hose can be used to connect to tap water pressure. For a pressure gauge, you can use a low-cost tyre pressure gauge from SuperCheap/Repco (as per the image below).



For those wanting a bit more accuracy (or where your tap pressure is not high enough) a hand pressure pump can also be used (the one in the photo below is a MityVac pressure/vacuum pump – handy for pressure testing, but also for vacuum testing things like Stromberg power bypass pistons and automatic transmission vacuum modulators).



My tap pressure is around the 15-20psi mark, though yours may be lower. Bear in mind that a Holden grey motor will only generate 7psi radiator pressure (controlled by the radiator cap), whilst the later red/blue/black motors can generate up to 14psi… this is why I like to test to 15psi. When testing the casing water jackets, fill the casing with water and vent out any air from a high point before fitting the pressure gauge. Crack the water tap and bring the pressure up slowly, looking for any weeping. Shut the water off and make sure it holds pressure for a few minutes. WARNING: whilst it is unlikely that the casing will give way, there is a moderate potential that the welsh plugs are ejected at high speed. Do not stand in front of the welsh plugs! A face shield is not a bad idea.
Of note, I’ve found that the 1½” brass cup-type welsh plugs (shown below on the right) do not seat very well on the Type 65 Normans (the alloy casing lands are quite shallow), and have a tendency to blow out at 15psi. I recommend instead that you fit 1½” cadmium plated steel dome-type plugs (shown below on the left).


The dome-type plugs are tapped in with a ball-pein hammer and expand, holding them more securely than the cup type. Go easy on the tapping process – a few light taps are better than thumping the hell out of the casing.



From most of the photos I have seen, the original Norman casings were either bare alloy (the earlier “Eldred” Normans like the Type 65) or purple anodized (the later “Mike” Normans). The early, early “Eldred” Normans did however have carnation-red end plates. Notwithstanding this, it remains common practice (and can look pretty cool) to paint in between the fins of the Type 65 Normans with red paint. If you are going to do this, now is a good time to do so. Clean the casing fin area up with some thinners or wax/grease remover and then mask up. A good engine enamel will suffice for this task, as normal paint will not usually handle the heat/fuel exposure. A good choice is Dupli-Colour Engine Enamel in &*#@ Red (DE1605), whilst the primer is Dupli-Colour Gray Engine Primer (DE1612), both available from SuperCheap Auto - typically one coat of primer, then three wet topcoats of red. In between wet coats (10 minute wait time as these are wet coats), wipe down the tops of the fins with a rag lightly covered in thinners. Once the paint had cured, do a final clean up of the tops of the fins with thinners.



Once the casing is painted, fit the brass 3/8”NPT nipples to the water jackets. The nipples are handy as “handles” in some of the next few steps where the casing end plate bolts are torqued up.



Note that NPT is a tapered thread which uses a metal-to-metal seal. There is no need to use Teflon tape or thread sealant on the threads unless they are badly damaged. Teflon tape and thread sealant are for straight (not tapered) thread… using them on tapered thread is the equivalent of using a pair of pliers to undo nuts. It’s not a bad idea to use a flare nut spanner on the nipples, as the brass is quite soft.
With the casing prepared, we can turn out focus onto the end-plates. Check the inside surfaces of both the drive end and non-drive end end-plates for gouges. It is quite common to find circular grooves either from the rotor shifting around and rubbing, or from something getting inside the casing (loose nut, bit of grit, busted vane spring etc). Grooves on the drive-end plate can also be caused by excessive rotor end thrust (say from misaligned pulleys). The grooves can act as a pathway for the compressed air/fuel mix, allowing leakage around the vanes and hence lower boost pressure.




To remove the gouges, you can put the plates in a lathe and turn down the surface until they are flat. However, most home workshops (including mine ) don’t have access to a lathe. A simple solution is to lap the gouges out. This is a little more labour intensive, but very much cheaper than purchasing a lathe. A lapping plate is made by purchasing a thick (~½”) sheet of glass, a little bigger than a sheet of sandpaper (9”x11”). Glass plate of this size can often be got from your local glazier as an offcut – mine cost $5. A couple of stick-on rubber legs from Bunnings will stop the plate sliding around, whilst two bulldog clips will hold the sheet of paper in place.



To lap out the gouges, start with course wet-and-dry paper (80 or 120 grit), and apply a little water to float out the particles from the paper surface. The end plate is then held down with gentle hand pressure, and rubbed across the paper in a figure-eight motion. Do not go backwards or forwards or in circles as this can cause grooving in the plate. Care needs to be taken to keep the pressure on the plate fairly even (i.e. not leaning forwards onto one side). Once a uniform surface finish has been made (rubbing out the marks), change the paper to a finer grade. Wash the end plate in water to remove any old grit, then go again with the finer paper. By moving successively through the finer grades of paper, a nice clean surface is obtained. I stopped at 400 paper, as there is no need for a mirror finish on this surface – remember that the end plates have a moderate degree of porosity (see the image below).



Once the end plates gouges are removed, check inside the bearing mounting surfaces for any small burrs in the aluminum where the bearing had grabbed, either in installation or disassembly. These marks are not a major concern provided they do not impede the bearing from being reseated, and can be removed gently with a sharp file.




Finally, give the end plates a clean-up in some soapy water, rinse them off and air-blow dry. Protect the aluminum by giving the surface a quick cut and polish on the buffing wheel, again rinsing off afterwards.
Time to put together out newly machined end plates. Starting with the drive-end end plate, lightly oil the inside of the bearing boss with some light machine oil. Tap in the new seal using a socket as a drift. Protect our nicely-flat end-plate face by doing this operation on a wooden surface padded out with some newspaper.



Take care to make sure the seal is fully (though gently!) seated, and square to the bore. Once installed, smeared some more light machine oil around the lip of the seal, ready to take the rotor shaft.
Fit the new drive-end bearing, either with a press or by using a socket as a drift. Note that either the press plate or the socket should rest on the bearing outer race only – not the inner race.



Note that this is a shielded (sealed) bearing, so no greasing is required. Take care that the bearing is fully seated, and square to the bore.



Lightly oil and then install the bearing snap ring, taking care that the snap ring is fully seated into the groove. This then completes the assembly of our drive-end end plate.




Use the assembled end-plate and casing to cut a drive end gasket.





As a starting point, I use ACL Gasket Material Pack 04 to suit Oil Jointing, which is 0.4mm thick (SuperCheap Auto part number 765164). Whichever gasket material you use, make sure you record the thickness as it is important to setting the rotor end-float later in the assembly process. I did a similar gasket cutting a little later for the non-drive end plate gasket.
Check the non-drive end plate for gouges or burrs, and lap/remove them as needs be. Polish, clean and dry the plate ready for assembly.
Assemble the non-drive end plate by again lightly oiling the bearing boss, and then pressed in the bearing outer race. Note that the non-drive end bearing is a two piece unit, so the inner race is added separately.



Install the bearing snap ring, taking care that it was fully seated in its groove.



Trial fit the inner bearing race into the end-plate.



Note that the inner bearing race is free to move on the outer race, but an interference fit on the rotor shaft. This means that if you put the bearing into the end plate and try to push the rotor through, the rotor grabs the bearing inner race and separates the inner/outer races. The easier way is to install the bearing inner race onto the rotor, and then install the combined bearing inner race/rotor into the end plate. For the time being, store the inner race away.
Note that the non-drive end bearing is not a sealed unit, and requires grease packing. In this case, I have used Shell Gadus S3 T100. This grease:
a) is suitable for roller and ball bearings (pretty damn important given that is what it is going onto… some greases used for king pin and chassis greasing will not be suitable),
b) is good for 160ºC (a high temperature range is important particularly if no water injection is used when we first get the unit going),
c) can handle higher bearing speeds,
d) is water tolerant (important if we are using water injection upstream of the supercharger), and
e) has a long service life (important as Norman superchargers are not fitted with grease nipples).





After getting the end plates ready, prepare the rotor by giving it a clean-off in some kerosene, and then lightly oil with light machine oil. The drive-end end plate is then slipped over the rotor, taking care to be gentle with the lip seal. Note that the photograph shows the gasket and bolts in place temporarily.



Assemble the thrust washer and key onto the rotor shaft, taking care with the orientation such that the stepped inner landing bears up against the drive end bearing inner race.



Install the drive pulley and pulley washer. Note that the pulley has again previously been given a light cut and polish on the buffing wheel, giving a nice shine, though not a mirror finish.



We now need to set the cold end-clearance between the rotor and casing at the drive end. As we have seen previously, this can be done in one of two ways:
a) relying on the shaft nut to lock (nylock nut), or
b) allowing the shaft nut to bottom out, and choosing an appropriately thick pulley washer to set the clearance.
Personally, I prefer the latter. Whichever one you choose, we now need to install the shaft nut and tighten it. To tighten the assembly, I use a piece of steel flat bar (1’6”x1’¼”x6.5mm) wedged into the rotor slot to hold the rotor still whilst torquing up the locknut (this piece of flatbar is a handy Norman tool... I can see it getting a fair bit of use in the future ).



This size nut could probably be torqued up to 150lb/ft when new. However, recognise that the thread on the rotor shaft is not in pristine condition, has a keyway cut through it, is not heavily loaded, and that if stripped would be a bugger of a repair. For this reason, I only torque the nut to 50 foot-pound. If you are choosing option “a” above (nut not bottomed out), then lightly tighten the nut.
Once the assembly is torqued up, checked the clearance between the end plate and rotor using a pair of feeler gauges.





We are aiming for a clearance of 0.010-0.015”, as used for Judson superchargers. Too little clearance and the rotor will bind/rub, too much clearance and the gas will not be pressurised. If using option “a”, adjust the shaft nut until you have the correct clearance. If using option “b”, select a thinner/thicker pulley washer to get the correct clearance - if the clearance it too big, install a thinner pulley washer (or skim down the existing one), and if the clearance is too small, install a thicker pulley washer or shim washer.


Now that the drive end clearance appears we can set the non-drive end clearance. The end-clearance is a lot harder to check on this one, as the rotor “floats” through the bearing. This means that you can’t assemble the unit and use feeler gauges like the drive end. Instead, a product called Plastigauge is used. Plastigauge is a little string/stick of material that looks similar to plasticine. It is of very accurate dimensions, with different grades of Plastigauge used to measure different clearances.



The Plastiguage is applied to the non-drive end of the rotor, as per the photograph below.



We will then assemble the rotor, and “squish” the Plastigauge. As the Plastigauge is squished, it flattens out. The width of the squished Plastigauge then indicates the clearance. We then open up the casing again and read off the width of the squish using the little green indicator cards seen in the picture.
Fit the non-drive end bearing onto the rotor, taking care to either press or drive it on squarely.



Assemble the rotor/drive end assembly into the casing, using the newly cut gasket. Tighten the end-plate bolts. For the Type 65 Norman, these are five ¼-28UNFx1” bolts, and should be torque to 50 inch-pounds (not foot-pounds!). This is not a very high torque, but bear in mind that the bolts are small, the threads lubricated and are into aluminum. The water jacket nipples are quite handy here to use as “handles” to stop the casing rotating whilst torqueing the bolts.
The non-drive end end plate and gasket is then gently installed, taking care not to bump the Plastigague. The respective end-plate bolts (five ¼-28UNFx1” for the Type 65 Norman) are again torqued up to 50 inch-pounds, taking care not to turn the rotor as this is done. The bolts are then undone, and the non-drive end plate is then removed (gently), and the Plastigauge examined. As the Plastigauge has been squished, it flattens out. The width of the squished Plastigauge then indicates the clearance, and is read off using the little green indicator cards. In the image below the thickness is around 0.2mm, or 0.008”. We are aiming for a clearance around 0.025” (as per Judson supercharger practice).



If the clearance is too large, thinner gaskets (either or both of the drive end and non-drive ends) can be used. If the clearance is too small, thicker gaskets can be used. Remember as my starting point I used 0.40mm (0.016”) thick gasket paper for both the drive end and non-drive ends. This means we start with a total of 2 x 0.016” = 0.032” of gasket material to play with. We could change one gasket, or both gaskets if needs be to get the right thickness combination for our end float. Note that neither gasket will change the drive end clearance. Repco and SuperCheap sell gasket sheet only as thin as 0.4mm (as thick as 3.2mm), whilst CBC Bearings stock 0.3mm (0.012”). To get thinner sheet try Blackwoods, whose stock both 0.15mm (0.006”) and 0.25mm (0.010”) as part numbers 05118683 and 05334302 respectively.
Once we have the right gaskets selected, the vanes can be put into the rotor and the casing end plates (finally) buttoned up. Care should be taken that the vane grooves are on the counter-clockwise side of the rotor (as viewed from the drive end). In the image to the right, the grooves go where the green arrow is, not the red arrow.



As noted above, new Bakelite vanes can be sourced from Bearing Thermal Resources. When doing so, it is a good idea to specify the Bakelite as slightly oversized, and then machine it down to suit your specific rotor. Particularly, the width of the vane must be machined down such that it is only as wide as the rotor (remember that we only have about 10 thou of clearance either side to the casing). It can be quite difficult to file and then sand down these end surfaces to a fine finish, square and high tolerance. To assist, we can again use our lapping plate. The vane is held in a simple lapping jig, made from some aluminum angle iron (from Bunnings) and two bolts with wing nuts to clamp either side of the vane.



The vane is placed in the jig on a flat surface so that it is square with the bottom of the angle iron. As the vane is lapped, both the vane and the angle iron will be machined down. This slows down the lapping process, which is not a bad idea given how easy it is to machine the Bakelite (very easy to sand off a little too much). Once one end is square and finished (lapped down to about 400 grit paper), the rotor is removed from the clamp and compared to the rotor. The opposite end of the vane is then clamped in and lapped down to the right overall length. Note that new Bakelite vanes should be soaked in engine oil overnight before installing (reused vanes just need a light coating of light machine oil).
With the casing buttoned up we can then tap in the non-drive end welsh plug (for the Type 65 Norman this is a 17/8” brass cup-type plug), using a socket as a drift to drive it in squarely.



The plug provides a pressure seal for the non-drive end of the supercharger. When we get around to pressure testing the entire casing/manifold, we will need to check that this plug remains nicely seated. This pressure testing will be done with air, and will be done when we set the manifold relief valve (pop-off safety valve).
The next item we will look at is the inlet manifold. The manifold for the Type 65 bolts to the top of the casing. Give the manifold a light cut and polish on the buffing wheel, and again clean it up in some soapy water before air blowing dry. Use the clean manifold to trace out the gasket required.



Bear in mind that this is a large surface area, relative narrow and liable to be somewhat uneven… not a bad idea to use the thick 0.4mm gasket sheeting for this gasket to give plenty of take-up.
The studs for the Type 65 inlet manifold are six ¼”-28UNFx1¾”, and four 5/16”-18UNCx3” studs (present). If you need to get hold of new studs it can be quite difficult, especially the ¼”-28UNF size. An easy way is to use some high tensile bolts with the heads cut off then dressed.



These should be matched up to acorn nuts for the “period correct” look. You can of course use plain bolts (as many early Normans do), though studs and nuts are a lot neater. The acorn nuts are available in stainless from Lee Brothers Engineering in Parramatta if you can’t get them locally. Care needs to be taken when installing the studs if the “cut the head off a bolt” method is used. The casing holes are through to the water jacket (not blind), and hence it is possible to install the studs until they touch the cast iron liner. It is a good idea to install the studs so they are not touching the jacket, as the cast iron in contact with the high tensile steel will set up a galvanic cell, accelerating corrosion (it would be just my luck for the cast iron liner, not the stud, to corrode). Remember also that the acorn nuts only go “on” so far…. It’s a good idea to trial fit the studs first to check they are the right length. Once all looks good, install the studs with some Loctite blue thread locker. This is needed as the studs do not “bottom out” and lock if the “cut the head off a bolt” method is used. If engineers studs are used, they will bottom out, and Loctite is not needed (use thread sealer instead). Once set, the gasket and manifold can be mounted to the supercharger. The ¼”-28UNF studs can be torqued to 50 inch-pounds, whilst the 5/16”-18UNC can be done up to 80 inch-pounds. As you can see from the images to the right, it’s now looking more like a Norman.




Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice supercharger fiddler).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:52 am

Ladies and Gents,

A quick correction.

In an earlier post (early October 2013), I reported that “Weiand had found that for Rootes type superchargers, running 92 octane fuel, with no intercooling and with no ignition retard that pinging will not occur with an effective compression ratio lower than 12:1. 92 octane fuel seems a little low given that 98 is freely available in Australia.”

I had made a mistake however as petrol in Australia is sold by it’s Research Octane Number (RON), whilst American petrol (gasoline) is sold by the average of it’s RON and it’s Motor Octane Number (MON) i.e:
• Australian octane = RON
• American octane = (RON + MON)/2.

RON and MON are similar, being just two different ways to measure when a fuel will ping. The upshot of this is that American octane numbers (for the same fuel) seem lower. As a rough guide,
• Australian 95 octane = American 91 octane
• Australian 98 octane = American 93 octane.
If we then translate Weiand’s rule into Australian, they saw that for Rootes type superchargers, running 97 octane fuel, with no intercooling and with no ignition retard that pinging will not occur with an effective compression ratio lower than 12:1. That sounds more realistic.
Note also that the chart I presented that brought together the Weiand and Miller/Bell/Bell’s experience was also incorrect, and was really in US octanes. Re-drawing the chart in Australian octanes:



The grey box I have drawn on the graph indicates the range of compression ratios seen in factory Holden grey motors (6.5:1 to 7.25:1) whilst the red box indicates the same for EH-HR Holden red motors (7.7:1 to 9.2:1). The graph shows that for our grey motor running on 98 RON premium pump fuel we should be able to achieve 10-13psi of boost without pinging (and about 9-11psi if we run el-cheapo 95 octane). This is also more realistic.

Apologies for the error.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

This is getting out of hand. I turn my back for 5 seconds, and another Norman finds it’s way into the house. This one is another of the later (Mike) Normans, 12” casing. Fitted to the top is a set of Hilborn injection.

Hilborn injector is a model U-3, serial number 106. Three 2” throttle plates.

The injector was originally purchased from Hilborn in the US on the 25th of July 1972 by R Brown from Glenanga South Australia (probably a Rowley Park Speedway competitor... if anyone knows of Mr Brown, I’d love to hear from them – already chasing the historic speedway guys). The original fuel pump was a PG150A-0, similar to the one currently on the unit set up for counter clockwise rotation with methanol fuel. The original metering valve was a #54, as existing. The injector was installed on a Peugot 403 engine of 1550cc (70ci) using a F500A fuel filter with Size #8 fittings. A secondary bypass of Hilborn #5 (F510-5) using a bypass spring 0.016 diameter, flow .66, jet 115.

The unit was origanlly fitted to a Peugot 403 engine. This is a 1,468 cc (80mm bore and 73m stroke = 90ci) straight four with a crossflow hemi head. The engine produced 65 hp (48 kW) at about 5,000 rpm and 75 lb•ft (102 N•m) of torque at 2,500 rpm. To get 1550cc would mean going 90 thou over, which would be unusual (these are wet lined rather than bored so more likely to replace liner). Unlikely to be the 1618cc Peugot 404 engine (1960-75, 66-85bhp and 97 ft. lb. @ 2,500rpm) or 504 (1796cc) engine. If anyone knows Pug engines and wants to school me on how you get 1550cc from one, I’d love to hear it.

Plan is to put this one in the longer term project department, then build a Norman blown grey motor meth monster . Slowly putting the bits together.

Cheers,
Harv (Dr Frankenstein, Norman meth monster department).

Ladies and gents,

I’d like to back track a little to my recent posting on relief valves, and reflect a little bit on a discussion I have had recently with a gentlemen who owns a rather cool running Norman. This machine has had some damn clever engineering… the kind of stuff that makes you stop and think.
An option that has been used on this particular vehicle is to utilize a radiator cap to act as a relief valve. This is a clever way to build a simple relief valve, as different pressure rating caps (eg 7, 10, 13 or 15psi) can be used to adjust the relief pressure. Radiator caps are readily available up to 30psi. A weld-on radiator neck from the local radiator repair shop can readily be brazed into a supercharger manifold. However, some caution needs to be taken when using this approach:
Radiator caps have a large opening at the bottom, about the same size as the radiator filler neck. For most radiator caps, this hole is about the same size as the relief valve required. However, the radiator fluid (or in our case air/fuel mix) has to flow through the radiator inlet/outlet nipple, shown as the green arrow in the diagram below:



The inlet/outlet nipple is much smaller than the radiator neck, acting as a restriction. There is a good chance that this restriction can be too small, leading to overpressure. It may be necessary to braze in multiple inlet/outlet nipples to get sufficient surface area.
Radiator caps are best known for keeping the pressure inside the radiator (or in our case the boost inside the inlet manifold). However, there are two types of radiator caps made – closed and recovery. If using a radiator cap for a relief valve, a closed cap must be used. Closed caps only open under pressure. A recovery radiator cap also acts as a vacuum breaker. The radiator cap not only has a pressure spring, but also a vacuum valve. When cold, both the pressure and vacuum valves of the cap remain closed. As the car warms up, the pressure in the cooling system rises. If the pressure begins to exceed the caps rated pressure, the pressure valve opens. As the engine load reduces, the pressure valve closes as the pressure comes down. As the vehicle cools down, any steam in the system will condense, and any hot air will shrink. This causes a vacuum in the radiator, and the vacuum valve opens. For older recovery radiator systems, air is drawn in through the vacuum valve to break the vacuum. For later cars with recovery coolant systems, coolant is drawn in from the overflow bottle. The vaccum required to open the vacuum valve will vary with manufacturer, though is very low. If we use a recovery-type radiator cap as a relief valve, the cap will again start out with both the pressure and vacuum valves of the cap closed. If we make too much boost pressure (or if we bang the blower), the pressure valve opens. However, under cruise conditions there is often a vacuum in the inlet manifold. The amount of vacuum will vary with different engines, but could be sufficient to allow the vacuum valve to open. If this occurs, the engine will draw in unfiltered air. The (potentially dirty) air will also bypass the carburetor, leading to a lean air/fuel mixture and the potential for pinging or engine damage.
Additionally, there are two different types of recovery radiator cap produced (not to be confused with “closed” and “recovery” type caps). The first type is known as a "constant pressure" type cap, as shown in the top image below:



With this design, the vacuum valve is held shut by a very light spring, creating a totally sealed system. If this type of radiator cap is used on our supercharger, boost pressure will starts to rise immediately because the closed vacuum valve prevents pressure from escaping. The second type of cap has an open variety of vacuum valve (often called “pressure vent” caps), as shown in the bottom image above. This type has no spring to hold the vacuum valve shut, only a small calibrated weight. The intention with this type of cap is that when the engine is first started (and under light operating conditions), pressure can vent through the vacuum valve. This allows the cooling system to operate at atmospheric pressure, reducing strain on the water pump seals, hoses, radiator, and heater core. As the engine starts to heat up, the escaping steam or coolant pushes the vacuum valve up and shut. This seals the radiator system tight, and pressure begins to build in the radiator. As the engine load reduces, the pressure in the radiator drops, and the valve opens again. If we use this type of valve, we will start out with the pressure valve open. The engine will start with vacuum in the inlet manifold, drawing in unfiltered air. The (potentially dirty) air will again bypass the carburetor, leading to a lean air/fuel mixture and the potential for pinging or engine damage. As the engine loads up, the inlet manifold will change from vacuum to boost pressure. An air/fuel mixture will flow out the radiator cap and into the engine bay. This will happen every time the vehicle comes on and off boost. Whilst it is tolerable to vent a “banged blower” into the engine bay every now and then, it is not a great idea to frequently vent an air/fuel mixture into the engine bay. For this reason, “pressure vent” style caps should not be used as relief valves.

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).

Ladies and Gents,

Please extend a warm welcome to Mr McInerney .

As you guys have seen over the last few months, I have been trying to contact a number of people associated with Norman superchargers. There have been a few lumps and bumps along the way (the FED boys are proving hard to find ), but I've also had some real wins. I've managed to contact both Mike and Bill Norman , and also Mike McInerney. Most of you can figure out where Mike and Bill fit into the picture, but I'm guessing not so many will be familiar with Mike McInerney. Time for the first of Harv's anecdotes .

I like stories. And I especially like stories about old racing cars. In the coming months I am going to post some stories about old Norman supercharged racing cars. The stories are going to be diverse, and don’t be surprised to see them going off on a tangent... bear with me, as the best stories are the ones that paint a picture of the era. I will also try to link some of these stories together where I can. Bear in mind that these anecdotes are a work in progress, and I probably won't get it right the first time... like always, if I'm wrong, point the error out please.

Elfin, Bluebird and Norman – Australian Land Speed Records.

Elfin Sports Cars Pty Ltd is the oldest continuous Australian racing car manufacturing company, founded by Garrie Cooper and manufacturing sports and racing cars since 1957. The original factory was located at Edwardstown in suburban Adelaide and is currently located at Braeside, Melbourne. Elfin is currently owned by Tom Walkinshaw, who also owns Holden Special Vehicles. Elfins have won 29 championships and major Grand Prix titles, including two Australian Driver's Championships, five Australian Sports Car Championships, four Australian Tourist Trophies and three Formula &*#@ titles. World Formula One Champion James Hunt raced an Elfin, as did French Formula One driver, Didier Pironi. Elfin also took out the Singapore Grand Prix, twice won the Malaysian Grand Prix and also won the Australian Formula Two Championship in 1972 with Larry Perkins in an Elfin 600B.

Between 1961 and 1964 Elfin made twenty open-wheeled single-seater Formula Junior and Catalina vehicles. The two models differed only in minor specifications with the majority built as Formula Juniors. International Formula Junior class rule require production-based engines with a either 1000cc/360kg car or 1100cc/400kg car, using production gearbox cases and brakes. I understand that the Elfin Formula Juniors were originally fitted with Cosworth &*#@ Anglia (105E) 1100c engines, though the Catalinas were fitted with a larger 1475cc &*#@ engine to meet Australian class rules.

Elfin Catalina Chassis Number 6313 was built for Dunlop Tyres for use on the Lake Eyre salt to determine certain characteristics for the tyres that were fitted to Donald Campbell's Bluebird land speed record attempts during 1963. The Elfin was fitted with 'miniature Bluebird tyres" and driven over the salt to determine factors such as co-efficient of friction and adhesion using a Tapley meter. The Tapley Brake Test Meter is a scientific instrument of very high accuracy, still used today. It consists of a finely balanced pendulum free to respond to any changes in speed or angle, working through a quadrant gear train to rotate a needle round a dial. The vehicle is then driven along a level road at about 20 miles per hour, and the brakes fully applied. When the vehicle has stopped the brake efficiency reading can be taken from the figure shown by the recording needle on the inner brake scale, whilst stopping distance readings are taken from the outer scale figures.

It is believed that the Elfin was running a (relatively) normal pushrod 1500cc Cortina engine with A3 cam and Weber DCOE carburettors for the Bluebird support runs. The photo below was taken on Lake Eyre and shows Donald Campbell alongside the red Elfin holding aloft a wind speed meter, with the 3,320kW Bluebird-Proteus CN7 to the right.



The photo below shows Ted Townsend, a Dunlop tyre fitter seconded to the Bluebird team in the Elfin.



Bluebird went on to set the world land speed record at Lake Eyre at 403.10 mph (648.73 km/h) on July 17th 1964. Campbell has been quoted as saying “We've made it – we got the bastard at last”.


Some nice history, but I guess you are wondering where the Normans are, right? When the Bluebird record attempts were completed, the Bluebird Tyre designer Mr Andrew Mustard (of North Brighton, Adelaide) bought the Elfin from Dunlop. The Elfin was in quite poor condition as a result of its work on the Lake Eyre Salt, with the magnesium based suspension struts quite corroded. A restoration took place over the end of 1963 and into 1964, and a single Norman supercharger fitted (see, told you this story had Normans ). The vehicle was then used at Mallala Race Circuit, and for record attempts for 1500cc vehicles in 1964 using the access road alongside the main hangars at Edinburgh Airfield (Weapons Research Establishment) at Salisbury, South Australia. The northern gates of the airfield were opened by the Australian Federal Police to give extra stopping time. At this time the Norman supercharged Elfin had:
• a single air-cooled Norman supercharger, driven by v-belts and developing around 14psi. The v-belts were short lived, burning out in around thirty seconds,
• four exhaust stubs, with the middle two siamesed,
• twin Amal carburettors,
• a heavily modified head by Alexander Rowe (a Speedway legend and co-founder of the Ramsay-Rowe Special midget) running around 5:1 compression and a solid copper head gasket/decompression plate. The head had been worked within an inch of it’s life, and shone like a mirror. The head gasket on the other hand was a weak spot, lasting only twenty seconds before failing. As runs had to be performed back-to-back within an hour, the team became very good at removing the head, annealing the copper gasket with an oxy torch and buttoning it all up again... inside thirty minutes.

The Norman supercharged Elfin, operated by Mustard and Michael McInerney set the following Australian national records from it’s Salisbury runs on October 11th, 1964:
• the flying start kilometre record (16.21s, 138mph),
• the flying start mile record (26.32s, 137mph), and
• the standing start mile record (34.03s, 106mph).

Ta da! Now you know where Mike McInerney fits into this. Say G'day to one of the few blokes to hold a Norman-supercharged Australian land speed record .

The Australian national records are established (or broken) in conformity with the rules established by the Confederation of Australian Motorsport (CAMS). A national record is said to be a ‘class record’ if it is the best result obtained in one of the classes into which the types of cars eligible for the attempt are subdivided, or ‘absolute record’ if it is the best result, not taking the classes into account. The Norman supercharged Elfin falls into Category A Group I class 6. This class is based on the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) category system, and consists of automobiles (not necessarily production) with reciprocating two- or four-stroke supercharged engines of 1100-1500cc capacity, with free fuel. For the curious, our grey motored Norman blown early Holden is eligible for Category A Group I class 8 (2,000-3000cc).
In 1983 CAMS made a decision to fully align the Australian national land speed records with the FIA requirements. The pre-1983 records were not fully compliant with all the FIA requirements, and hence have been set in stone – they can no longer be challenged. This means the Mustard/McInerney records above are still standing. However, the decision meant that all available records were declared vacant and able to be filled under the newly adopted FIA requirements for a speed record attempt. Two of the Mustard/McInerney type records have since been set as follows:
• the flying start kilometre record (set by S Brooke in a Daihatsu Charade Turbo, 26.76s in 1985), and
• the flying start mile record (again set by S Brooke’s Daihatsu Charade Turbo, 40.03s in 1985).
The third Mustard/McInerney type record (for the standing start mile) does not have an Australian record holder. This is the case for many of the new (post 1983) classes, where no national records have been set (since 1983). Before you get too excited about going out and claiming all those records, there is a catch. A typical national record attempt is likely to cost between $5000 and $10,000... plus the vehicle costs.

The photo below shows the Elfin in it’s 1964 guise at Salisbury, with McInerney in the foreground with his hands over the Amal carburettors.



Directly below the four black exhaust stubs is what appears to be the red Norman supercharger, with an alloy end plate and brass welsh plug facing the camera. Note that in this state of tune the engine was able to be held together for only short periods (like nine minutes...) with only twenty seconds being typical with the car at full noise.

The photo below shows McInerney (in glasses to the left) with Mustard in the cockpit.



This was not the Elfin’s only association with Norman superchargers. The Elfin was later modified to have:
• dual air-cooled Norman superchargers (identical to the single Norman used earlier), mounted over the gearbox. The superchargers were run in parallel, with a chain drive. The chain drive was driven by a sprocket on the crank, running up to a slave shaft that ran across to the back of the gearbox to drive the first supercharger, the down to drive the second. The boost pressure in this configuration had risen to 29psi,
• two 2" SU carburettors (with four fuel bowls) jetted for methanol by Peter Dodd (another Australian Speedway legend and owner of Auto Carburettor Services),
• a straight cut 1st gear in a VW gearbox. The clutch struggled to keep up with the torque being put out by the Norman blown Elfin, and was replaced with a 9” grinding disk, splined in the centre and fitted with brass buttons... it was either all in, or all out.

In the twin Norman supercharged guise the vehicle was driven by McInerney to pursue the standing ¼ mile, standing 400m and flying kilometre records in October 1965. Sadly, the twin-Norman supercharged Elfin no longer holds those records, as the ¼ mile and flying kilometre (together with a few more records) were set at this time by Alex Smith in a Valano Special. The Valano Special is a Valiant 225 slant-six powered car with a fibreglass Milano body made by JWF Fibreglass. The pictures below show Smith in the Valano at Templestowe Hill Climb (once Australia’s steepest paved road at a gradient of 1:2½ or 22º) in Victoria, a year later in 1966.




The day following the 1965 speed record trials (Labour Day October 1965), McInerney raced the twin-Norman supercharged Elfincar at Mallala as a "Formule Libre" as there was insufficient time to revert the engine back to Formula II specifications. The photo below shows the McInerney in the Elfin at Mallala Race Circuit:



The car was used for training the South Australian Police Force driving instructors in advanced handling techniques, and regularly used at Mallala and other venues (closed meetings for the Austin 7 club, etc). It was sold by Mustard to Dean Rainsford of South Australia in 1966, though sadly without the Norman supercharger (by then it was running the mildly tuned Cortina engine again). The vehicle continued adding to it’s racing history, with Rainsford droving it to a win in the 1966 Australian 1½ Litre Championship Round 4 (the Victorian Trophy, Sandown, Victoria on the 16th of October 1966).

In the ensuing twentysix years it passed through nine more owners before Rainsford re-acquired it in 1993. After many years of fossicking, Rainsford has located the original Mustard/McInerney supercharged engine used in the 1965 record attempts. The engine is located in Gawler, South Australia (not far from the record track at Salisbury) ... sadly without it’s Norman supercharger – see photo below.



As noted above, this anecdote is a work in progress. I'm still working on feedback from the Elfin Heritage Centre, and some other info coming on the Bluebird runs. As a tease, I'm lining up anecdotes on the Norman-blown Rowe/Wigzell speedcar, and some FEDs .

Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger anecdote collector).
 
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Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 11:53 am

This marks the end of the material cut and pasted from the old forum. From here on it, it should be back to normal (with photos).

Cheers,
Harv
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

Re: Harv's Norman supercharger thread

by Harv » Fri May 09, 2014 7:24 pm

A couple of odds and ends for this post.

One thing that has been bugging me is that people refer to the “Type 65” as having a capacity of 65ci. No matter how hard I did the measurements and maths, I could not get 65ci/rev. In re-reading Eldred’s Supercharge!, I found the answer.
In earlier posts, I used a specific way to measuring supercharger capacity. The method I used (which is commonly used for modern superchargers) effectively says:
a) Measure how much air the supercharger breathes in when the first set of vanes swings past the inlet. This air will be pretty much at atmospheric pressure, and
b) Multiply that by the number of vanes.
In the drawing below, this means work out the volume shown in red, and multiply it by six.

Image

This gives the volumes shown in the table below (note that I have added a few new superchargers to this table since my earlier posting):

Image

An alternate method was used by Eldred Norman (and is shown in Supercharge!):
“To ascertain the volume of the vane type, subtract the volume of the rotor treated as a solid form from the volume of the interior of the casing”.
This method says:
a) Measure how much air is in the supercharger at any given time, no matter how compressed it is.
In the drawing above, this means work out the volume shown in orange. Eldred’s method is neither more right nor more wrong than the modern method… just different. It also gives different results – a lot smaller number than the modern method. As an example, when we measure Gary’s Type 65 supercharger using the modern method, we get 118ci/rev. However, when we measure the Type 65 using Eldred’s method, we get 67ci/rev (near enough to 65ci, and hence the name).

Also from earlier posts, I showed how to set the non-drive end clearance by changing the gasket thicknesses. I noted that both Repco and SuperCheap sell gasket sheet only as thin as 0.4mm (as thick as 3.2mm), whilst CBC Bearings stock 0.3mm (0.012”). To get thinner sheet, I was going to try Blackwoods, whose catalogues show both 0.15mm (0.006”) and 0.25mm (0.010”) as part numbers 05118683 and 05334302 respectively. Unfortunately, Blackwoods don’t stock the sheet anywhere in the country . They could get it in for me... but only if I bought 100 metres worth(!). I did a fair bit of telephoning around, and got the same answer at most places – yes they stock it, but order it in specially at 100m a time. I finally found a supplier - Tucks Industrial Packings and Seals Pty Ltd (120 Ferrars Street South Melbourne, Vic 3205, telephone 0396902577, email sales@tucks.com.au, www.tucks.com.au). Nice blokes to deal with, and very helpful.
Cheers,
Harv (deputy apprentice Norman supercharger fiddler).
 
Posts: 465
Joined: Sun May 04, 2014 7:52 am

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